Through the writing and phonetic system of 《Primer》compiled by Baller, Beijing dialect was the dominant dialect of Chinese at the time and was an essential dialect for learning in China. In the book, he referred to Mandarin as Beijing's official language. The merging of Jian zu and Jing zu, the rhyme of entering tone character, the tone system is basically constant with Beijing dialect. This is totally different from Nanjing dialect, which has confusion of consonant n and l, final n and ŋ. Baller was a missionary who studied Chinese in Nanjing and mainly engaged in missionary work in Anhui or Jiangsu. Nevertheless, the fact that he compiled Chinese textbooks based on Beijing dialect proves that Beijing dialect was a common and widely used language in China at the time, and was an important dialect that foreigners should learn.
Ⅱ. 《A Mandarin Primer》의 표기 체계
Ⅲ. 《A Mandarin Primer》의 음운 체계
Ⅳ. 《A Mandarin Primer》의 기초 방언과 官話에 대한 인식