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中國學 第82輯.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

『译语类解』“疾病”类词汇探讨

成书于朝鲜肃宗时期的『译语类解』,是现存最早的“类解书”,也是近代的汉语教科书,󰡔译语类解󰡕中包含了近代汉语丰富的词汇。『译语类解』将收录的词汇按照天文、时令、气候等条目分类编排,并用韩文对译、注音,配合各种语种的教材使用。17、18世纪是中国疫病发病频率最高的时期,『译语类解』中有94个“疾病”类词汇,通过分析“疾病”类词汇的具体症状,将这些词汇重新分为10个大类,如“临床症状”类、“传染病”类、“神经系统疾病”类、“代谢性疾病”类、“性病”类、“寄生虫”类、“急症”类、“外科疾病”类以及其他。发现“疾病”类词汇变化相对较为保守,大多数词汇在现代汉语中依然在使用。此外“疾病”类词汇中有34个异体字,本文根据34个异体字的字形构件变化,分为11个类型,如:省笔变化、笔画相同变形、笔画相同替换、省笔替换、增笔替换、增笔、省笔、减笔、替换、变形。

Written during the reign of King Sukjong of the Joseon Dynasty, Yeyi Language Jiejie is the earliest existing book of Yeyi Language Jiejie, and it is also a modern Chinese textbook. It contains rich words in modern Chinese. The book classifies the words in categories such as astronomy, season and climate, and uses Korean translation and phonetic transcription to complement textbooks in various languages. The 17th and 18th centuries were the period with the highest frequency of epidemic diseases in China. There are 94 “diseases” words in the book. By analyzing the specific symptoms of “diseases” words, these words are reclassified into 10 categories. Such as “clinical symptoms” category, “infectious diseases” category, “neurological diseases” category, “metabolic diseases” category, “venereal diseases” category, “parasites” category, “acute” category, “surgical diseases” category and others. It is found that the changes of “disease” are relatively conservative, and most of the words are still in use in modern Chinese. In addition, there are 34 dissimilar words in the category of “disease”. According to the changes of the font components of the 34 dissimilar words, this paper divides them into 11 types, such as: brushsaving change, same deformation of strokes, same replacement of strokes, brushsaving replacement, additional replacement, additional stroke, saving stroke, reducing stroke, replacement and deformation.

1. 绪论

2. 『译语类解』“疾病”类词汇与背景

3. “疾病”类词汇分析

4. 结论

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