Modern cultural sociology considers that any human society cannot leave the culture. society is actually a complex cultural system, and language is one of the elements of a cultural system. Chinese idiom types varied, rich and colorful, has the rich connotation and profound content. Chinese animal idioms and plant idioms have independent representation, the representational profoundly reflects the culture of the han nationality and characteristics of thinking. The composition and use of Chinese animal and plant idioms embody the characteristics of intuitive thinking of the han nationality, so we can find the formation of Chinese plants and animals idioms, can also understand the metaphor mechanism and using regulation of plant and animal idioms in Chinese. This article attempts to study the relationship between idioms and the characteristics of han nationality culture and thinking, through analysing the law of selecting images and the mode of establishing cultural significance of the animal and plant idioms in existing idiom dictionary and allusions.