Comparison of Anti-Inflammation Effects of Specimens Before and After the Oil Extraction of Raphanus sativus L. Seed in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Activated by LPS
Raphanus sativus L. has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. However, the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of action of the Raphanus sativus L. seeds (RSS) with or without oil are still unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the in-vitro anti-inflammatory effect with or without oil in the RSS on RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed the suppressed LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, TNF-α). Additionally, a decrease in protein expression of iNOS was observed, but nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was not inhibited. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of RSS, the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways was examined. We also found that RSS blocked LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK) signaling but did not affect the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. These results suggest that RSS may have potential as an anti-inflammatory agent through the inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production via regulation of the JNK pathway.
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