상세검색
최근 검색어 전체 삭제
다국어입력
즐겨찾기0
中國學 第83輯.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

1949年以来中国语言政策下方言的记录与继承

以四川方言为例

四川地区的方言母语者大多数都是在学校接受普通话教育之后才认识到自己一直以来听说的语言是汉语中的方言。以20世纪九十年代的成都重庆为例,四川方言是主要的使用语言,国家虽然推广普通话,但是学校教育中仍有部分教师在用方言进行教学。进入21世纪,四川地区说普通话的人逐渐多了起来,在一些公共场所,出现必须使用普通话的规定,学校教育现场完全使用普通话教学。彼时,方言和普通话正面交锋,一些在学校教育中没有接受普通话教学的人群开始使用“椒盐普通话”通常是指将四川重庆地区的方言用普通话的语调说出来的语言,简称川普,主要作为四川重庆地区不会说普通话的人群,需要使用普通话时的交流工具。 。到现在,普通话成为主流,普及率超过八成。中国国务院办公厅于2021年印发的《关于全面加强新时代语言文字工作的意见》 中国国办发〔2020〕30号,发布日期:2021年11月30日。 中明确提出,到2025年,普通话在全国普及率达到85%。普通话推广的同时,方言的使用场面逐渐变少,使用人群逐渐减少。方言面临逐渐消亡的危机。与此同时,中国相关研究部门也意识到方言的危机,国家启动了中国语言文化资源保护。这些保护基本旨在记录方言,保存了大量可供参阅的资料,但是方言的消亡速度并没有减缓。本稿在整理1949年以后中国语言政策的同时,通过田野调查解析当前四川方言的现状提出四川方言所面临的问题,针对这些问题,提出方言记录和方言继承相结合的解决方案。希望我们从父辈耳濡目染学来的语言能一直传承下去。

Most of the dialect native speakers in the Sichuan region realize that the language they have been hearing is a dialect of Chinese only after receiving Mandarin education in school. Taking Chengdu and Chongqing in the 1990s as an example, the Sichuan dialect was the main language used. Although the country promoted Putonghua, some teachers still used dialects for teaching in school education. In the 21st century, the number of people who speak Mandarin in Sichuan area has gradually increased. In some public places, it is stipulated that Mandarin must be used, and the school education site uses Mandarin teaching entirely. At that time, dialects and Mandarin were confronted head-on, and some people who did not receive Mandarin teaching in school education began to use “Pepper and Salt Mandarin”, which usually refers to the language spoken in the tone of Mandarin in the dialect of Sichuan and Chongqing, referred to as Trump, mainly as People in Sichuan and Chongqing who cannot speak Mandarin need a communication tool when using Mandarin. Up to now, Mandarin has become the mainstream, with a penetration rate of more than 80%. “Opinions on Comprehensively Strengthening Language Work in the New Era” issued by the General Office of the State Council of China in 2021 China Guobanfa [2020] No. 30, release date: November 30, 2021. It is clearly stated that by 2025, the national penetration rate of Mandarin will reach 85%. At the same time as the promotion of Mandarin, the use of dialects has gradually decreased, and the number of users has gradually decreased. Dialects are facing a gradual extinction crisis. At the same time, relevant research departments in China are also aware of the crisis of dialects, and the country has initiated the protection of Chinese language and cultural resources. These protections are basically aimed at recording dialects and preserving a large amount of information for reference, but the speed of extinction of dialects has not slowed down. While sorting out Chinese language policies after 1949, this publication analyzes the current situation of Sichuan dialects through field investigations and puts forward the problems faced by Sichuan dialects. Aiming at these problems, a solution combining dialect records and dialect inheritance is proposed. I hope that the language we have learned from our parents can be passed on forever.

1. 序论

2. 1949年以来中国语言政策的政策的梳理

3. 四川方言的现状

4. 方言的记录和继承

5. 结论

로딩중