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KCI등재 학술저널

中国数据可携权的赋权法理问题与完善进路

数字经济背景下,数据作为新的生产要素,在资源配置中发挥了极其重要的作用。个人数据的收集、存储与转移逐步常态化,个人数据成为公共管理、社会服务和商业竞争的一项重要资源。但问题也随之显现出来,如何在保护数据主体对其个人数据的权利的同时实现数据的自由流动,打造个人数据权利保护与数字经济发展共赢局面是全球面临的重大难题。个人数据可携权的出现无疑为这一问题的解决提供了思路,在该权利的行使中,数据主体可以自主控制个人数据在不同数据控制者之间流转,具有增强数据主体自决权与促进数据市场竞争的双重效果。目前,欧盟、美国部分州、巴西等国家和地区都在制定法层面将数据可携权上升为一项个人数据权利,中国《个人信息保护法》中亦有可携权的相关规定。作为数字时代下个人信息保护的回应,个人数据可携带权在保障用户主体数据控制权益,以及数据无障碍传输方面意义深远。世界主要国家已经在构建本土化的个人数据可携带权具体规范,而且未来将会遍及更多的国家和地区。个人数据可携带权不仅关系个人利益,更是发展数字经济,实现数据要素市场化的重要手段。因此,中国也应根据国情和实践,建设具有中国特色的个人数据可携带权的具体制度规范。 基于中国《个人信息保护法》的规范解读、数据主体实现个人信息权利的现实需要以及其他域外国家司法实践的有益参考,个人数据可携带权具有进一步适用的法理逻辑,个人数据可携权是中国《民法典》关于个人信息权益的延伸,该权利的确立可以有效强化个人对于数据的占有和有效控制,既可以使个人在数字经济中获得人格的独立,也可以成为数据贡献和再利用的受益者。研究个人数据可携带权有利于完善个人数据保护体系,进一步厘清个人与企业、企业与企业之间的数据归属和转移问题。 遗憾的是,当前个人数据可携带权的法权属性仍存在财产权与人格权的争议,同时行权规则的模糊以及适用范围的混乱导致其效果差强人意。针对个人数据可携带权存在的问题,中国构建个人数据可携带权制度可以借鉴欧盟等国家的模式和制度规范,但并非照搬照抄,而是在对中国个人数据可携带权的实践状况和模式进行分析和研究的前提下,提出符合中国国情和数据发展现状的具体设计。首先,明确个人数据可携带权“财产权+人格权”的双重属性,不仅充分体现数据主体的个人特征和权利,也突出个人数据为数据主体创造的经济价值。其次,细化数据可携带权的权利结构,将自然人确定为个人数据可携带权的权利主体;将对数据的处理与利用有重要决策作用的主体确定为个人数据可携带权的义务主体;对权利客体的规制与权利分配关系密切,因此从适应范围和排除范围的视角出发,以类型化的方法对权利客体的范围进行规制;出于防止数据可携带权的滥用的目的,增添限制性条款,使权利在合适的范围内得到行使。最后,构建个人数据可携带权的配套机制,完善数据主体对其个人数据可携带权的救济途径,同时从国家、行业和企业三个方面建立完善的数据保护监管体系。

Under the background of digital economy, data, as a new factor of production, plays an extremely important role in resource allocation. The collection, storage and transfer of personal data are gradually normalized, and personal data has become an important resource for public management, social services and business competition. However, the problem also emerges. How to realize the free flow of data while protecting the rights of data subjects to their personal data, and create a win-win situation between the protection of personal data rights and the development of digital economy is a major problem facing the world. The emergence of the portability right of personal data undoubtedly provides ideas for the solution of this problem. In the exercise of this right, the data subject can independently control the flow of personal data among different data controllers, which has the dual effect of enhancing the self-determination right of the data subject and promoting the competition in the data market. At present, the European Union, some states of the United States, Brazil and other countries and regions are formulating laws to raise the right of data portable as a personal data right, and there are also relevant provisions in China's Personal Information Protection Law. As a response to the protection of personal information in the digital age, the right to data portability has a far-reaching significance in protecting the data control rights of users and the barrier-free data transmission. Major countries in the world are already building localized specific specifications for the right to carry personal data, and it will reach more countries and regions in the future. The right to carry personal data is not only related to personal interests, but also an important means to develop the digital economy and realize the marketization of data elements. Therefore, China should also timely build a specific system for the right to carry personal data with Chinese characteristics according to its national conditions. Based on the normative interpretation of China's Personal Information Protection Law, the practical needs of data subjects to realize the right of personal information, and the useful reference of the judicial practice of countries outside the region, the data portable right has further applicable legal logic. The portability of personal data is an extension of the rights and interests of personal information in the Civil Code of China. The establishment of this right can effectively strengthen the individuals' possession and effective control of data, which can not only enable individuals to gain personality independence in the digital economy, but also become a beneficiary of data contribution and reuse. The study of the right to data portability is conducive to improving the personal data protection system, and further clarifying the data ownership and transfer between individuals and enterprises, and between enterprises and enterprises. Unfortunately, there are still disputes between the property right and the personality right in the legal property of the current data portable right, and the fuzzy exercise rules and the confusion of the scope of application lead to its unsatisfactory effect. In view of the problems of the right to data portability, China build personal data carrying system can draw lessons from the European Union and other countries mode and system specification, but not copy, it is in the practice of carrying data at home and abroad and mode analysis and research under the premise of, conform to China's national conditions and the development status of the specific design. Firstly, the dual attribute of “property right + personality right” should be clarified. It not only fully reflects the personal characteristics and rights of the data subject, but also highlights the economic value created by the personal data for the data subject.

Ⅰ. 绪言

Ⅱ. 个人数据可携带权的基本法理

Ⅲ. 个人数据可携带权的赋权依据

Ⅳ. 个人数据可携带权的法理困境

Ⅴ. 中国个人数据可携带权的完善进路

Ⅵ. 结论

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