Background: This paper deals with the study of natural radioactivity in rocks from Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. The aim is to determine radiation emissions from rocks in order to estimate radiation hazard indices. Objectives: The following objectives were targeted: 1. To determine radiation emissions from each type of rocks; 2. To estimate radiation hazard indices based on the rocks; 3. To correlate the activity concentrations of radionuclides with major oxides. Methods: The samples were analyzed using a NaI (Tl) gamma ray spectrometric detector and PerkinElmer AAnalyst 400 AAS spectrometer. Results: The activity of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th were found in order of decreasing magnitude from pegmatite>granite>migmatite. In contrast, lower concentrations were found in shale, phosphate, clay stone, sandstone and limestone. The mean absorbed doses were 125±23 nGyh–1 (migmatite), 74±13 nGy/h (granite), 72±13 nGyh–1 (pegmatite), 64±09 nGyh–1 (quartzite), 45±16 nGyh–1 (shale), 41±09 nGyh–1 (limestone), 41±11 nGyh–1 (clay stone), 24±03 nGyh–1 (phosphate), and 21±10 nGyh–1 (sandstone). The outdoor effective dose rates in all rock samples were slightly higher than the world average dose value of 0.34 mSvy–1. The percentage composition of SiO2 in the rock samples was above 50 wt% except for in the limestone, shale and phosphate. Al2O3 ranged from 4.10~21.24 wt%, Fe2O3 from 0.39~7.5 wt%, and CaO from 0.09-46.6 wt%. In addition, Na2O and K2O were present in at least 5 wt%. Other major oxides, including TiO2, P2O5, K2O, MnO, MgO and Na2O were depleted. Conclusions: The findings suggest that Ogun State may be described as a region with elevated background radiation. It is recommended that houses should be constructed with good cross ventilation and residences should use home radiation monitoring instruments to monitor radon emanating from walls.