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KCI등재 학술저널

몽골어, 만주어의 의문첨사 비교

A Comparative Study on the Interrogative Particle in Mongolian Language and the Manchu Language: Focusing on 『蒙語老乞大』 and 『淸語老乞大』

In this paper, interrogative sentences were abstracted from the 『蒙語老乞大』 and the『淸語老乞大』to compare questions and interrogative particles in the Mongolian language and the Manchu Language. The questions in the Mongolian language and Manchu language divided into those with and without interrogatives. We focused on the comparison of interrogative particles shown in interrogative sentences without interrogatives, because interrogative particles do not appear in sentences in the case of interrogative sentences with interrogatives. For the development of the discussion, the interrogative sentences without interrogatives were divided into the general interrogative sentences and the negative interrogative sentences and the forms that interrogative particles are combined with predicates and substantives were analyzed. In the study the following commonalities and differences were found. 1) In the Mongolian language and the Manchu language, present and past tenses are not distinctively distinguished. The same is applied to the questions and the present and future question form is the same. As it is applied to both general interrogative sentences and negative interrogative sentences, care must be taken of in the interpretation. 2) When asking about a certain event in the past at present, ‘nau/neu’ is used the Mongolian language and ‘mbi+o’ is used in the Manchu language. Those forms are generally used to make a present question and a future question, but the speaker can also use this form when asking the past event at present to make the listener recall the past. 3) ‘buyu(bui+uu)’ in the 28Mongolian language and ‘bio(bi+o)’ in the Manchu language can be used as the meaning of auxiliary verb and substantive verb. They can mean present or future according to the context. 4) When making a negative interrogative sentence, ‘ugei uu’ in the Mongolian language and ‘akūn’ in the Manchu language are the most common form. They are ① inclusive negatives to negate predicates and substantives ② the vowel deletion by the preceding verb is seen ③ alternative interrogatives are commonly used to make a negative interrogative sentence. Differences are as follows; it is common to have space between the preceding part of speech and the interrogative particle in the Mongolian language, while in Manchu language there is no space between the interrogative particle and the preceding part of speech. Additionally, the followings were identified; 1) when ‘ni’ combines with the interrogative particle ‘o’ in Manchu language, ‘nio’ is used to make an interrogative sentence or to distinguish meaning, 2) When ‘ra/re/ro’, which are known to future indicative particles, are used in negative interrogative sentence, they can mean both of present and future.

1. 서론

2. 일반의문문

3. 부정의문문

4. 결론

참고문헌

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