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KCI등재 학술저널

화두참구에 대한 내러티브적 접근

A Narrative Approach on My Hwadu Meditation: focusing on teachings learned from Master Gusan

네러티브적 접근은 경험을 대상으로 한 질적 연구의 한 방법이다. 곧 ‘특정한 경험’을 현시점에서 ‘다시 이야기함(retelling)’으로써 그 체험이 가지는 의미를 탐구한다. 화두참구와 같은 명상체험은 통계에 의존한 양적 연구나 혹은 문헌적 접근보다는 경험에 대한 질적 접근이 적절한 연구방법이라 생각한다. 이에 필자는 구산 선사의 입적 40주년을 맞이하여 스님의 지도로 어떻게 화두를 결택하고 점검을 받았는지, 문답을 통해서 어떤 깨달음과 성찰을 이루었는지를 이야기하고 그것이 가지는 의미를 내러티브적으로 조망한다. 먼저, 첫 번째는 화두의 결택이다. 구산선사와의 인연을 통해서 어떻게 ‘이뭣고’ 화두를 결택하고 그것이 ‘어떻게 생기었나’는 질문과 함께 화두참구를 하게 되었는지를 이야기한다. 다음 두 번째는 좌선이란 화두가 마음에 ‘자리잡음’이라는 정의와 일상에서 화두수행의 점검을 다루고, 천당과 지옥의 윤회란 바로 ‘생각’이라는 스님의 지적과 함께 다종교현상에서 만나게 되는 있음[有]과 없음[無]의 갈등을 필자의 경우는 어떻게 해소하게 되었는지를 다룬다. 곧 성경의 에덴동산을 마음의 본래면목으로서 마음동산[心地, 心性, 靈體]으로 해석하고 그곳에 서 있는 산악과를 끊임없이 생겨나는 선악의 분별의식, 윤회하는 생각으로 해석한다. 세 번째는 ‘온다’는 것과 ‘간다’는 것에 대한 스님의 질문과 점검을 다룬다. 형상의 부정은 논리적인 측면이고 구체적인 긍정성이 요청된다. 이것을 필자는 산행하면서 경험한 세 번째의 광명체험으로 해소하였음을 말한다. 오지 않고 가지 않는 가운데 천하 대지는 빛으로 가득 차 있음을 분명하게 자각한다.

What is this? When I close my eyes, the sight before my eyes Becomes brighter. Smiling with a deep sense of happiness. This is the conclusion. A key component of the meditation path of all spiritual pilgrimages, including Ganhwa-Seon, is the question-answer and inspection between the teacher and disciple. This is absolutely a key element of rapport formation. So Ganhwaseon is the art of life consisting of questions and answers. For this reason, a qualitative narrative review that describes experiences is considered an appropriate approach rather than a literary hermeneutics or statistical quantitative approach. The narrative approach is a method of qualitative research targeting experiences. In other words, the meaning of a ‘specific experience’ is explored by ‘retelling’ it at the present time. For meditation experiences such as Hwadu meditation, I believe that a qualitative approach to experience is an appropriate research method rather than quantitative research based on statistics or a literature approach. In the practice of Ganhwa Seon, the presence of a teacher who selects hwadu and checks the practice has absolute influence. However, in most of the existing Seon Records, it is treated as a great enlightenment, and there is no detailed report on how this part is specifically accomplished and what the enlightenment is. Accordingly, in commemoration of the 40th anniversary of Master Kusan's death, I talks about how I chose and examined topics of Hwadu under the Master's guidance, what kind of enlightenment and reflection I achieved through questions and answers, and takes a narrative look at their meaning. First of all, the first thing is the choice of Hwadu. Through my relationship with Master Gusan, I talk about how I chose a Hwadu called ‘What is it’ and started delving into the Hwadu along with the question ‘How did it come about?’ Through this, I switches from a 2-step to a 3-step method of studying the hwadu and discusses whether the essence of the hwadu is the sensation of doubt(疑情) or reflective intuition(返照). The inspection part of the hwadu of topic was mainly done through letters with the Sunim, but the specific questions and answers were done through direct interviews while I participated in the summer retreat. Next, the second part deals with the definition of zazen[坐禪] as 'establishment' of the Hwadu in the mind and the inspection of the practice of the Hwadu in daily life, and with the Sunim's point out that reincarnation in heaven and hell is just 'thought', it is a question of existence encountered in the phenomenon of multiple religions. It deals with how the conflict between existence[有] and nothing[無] was resolved in my own case. In other words, the Garden of Eden in the Bible is interpreted as the garden of the mind as the original aspect of the mind[心性, 靈體], and the garden fruit standing there is interpreted as the consciousness of discernment between good and evil and also the idea of reincarnation that is constantly arising. In this way, the ‘hwadu’ and the ‘miracle of Ephatha(be opening)’ is understood as the key to realizing the true nature of the garden and escaping reincarnation. The third deals with the Sunim’s questions and examination of ‘coming’ and ‘going’. The negation of the form is a logical aspect and specific positivity is required. This problem was resolved through the third brighten experience with light I had while walking on the mountain. Without coming or going, I clearly realize that the earth is full of light. The Sunim’s last teaching is the ‘back view’ of standing at Samilam Hermitage. This is to reveal in silence that our life itself is a great samadhi. So the monk smiled and left.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 이뭣고, 화두의 결택

Ⅲ. 문답과 깨달음

Ⅳ. 맺음말과 논의

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