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KCI등재 학술저널

개혁개방 이후 중국 은행산업의 구조와 성과: 국유은행과 주식제 은행의 차이를 중심으로

The Effect of Market Structure on the Performance of China's Banking Industry: Focusing on the Differences between Nation-Owned Banks and Joint-Stock Banks

Purpose - This study applies the traditional Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) model from industrial organization theory to investigate the relationship between market structure and performance in China's banking industry. Design/methodology/approach - For analysis, financial data from the People's Bank of China's “China Financial Stability Report” and financial reports of 6 state-owned banks and 11 joint-stock banks for the period 2010 to 2021 were collected to create a balanced panel dataset. The study employs panel fixed-effects regression analysis to assess the impact of changes in market structure and ownership structure on performance variables including return on asset, profitability, costs, and non-performing loan ratios. Findings - Empirical findings highlight significant differences in the effects of market structure between state-owned and joint-stock banks. Notably, increased market competition positively correlates with higher profits for state-owned banks and with lower costs for joint-stock banks. Research implications or Originality - State-owned banks demonstrate larger scale and stability, yet they struggle to respond effectively to market shifts. Conversely, joint-stock banks face challenges in raising profitability against competitive pressures. Additionally, the study emphasizes the importance for Chinese banks to strengthen risk management due to the increase of non-performing loans with competition. The results provide insights into reform policies for Chinese banks regarding the involvement of private sector in the context of market liberalization process in China.

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