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KCI등재 학술저널

무인정권기 혐오 범죄 그리고 치안

13세기 고려의 온난 기후

동아시아 10~14세기의 중세는 온난하였다. 중세 온난 중 12세기와 14세기는 한랭하였고, 11세기와 13세기는 고온하다. 고온에 습윤한가 건조한가. 13세기 한반도 중부는 대체로 고온습윤하였다. 고온다습은 하늘 바다 땅 모두 물의 재난을 입는다. 물의 범람으로 강수·해수가 자주 넘쳐났다. 강수의 범람과 해일, 잦은 비는 땅을 무르게 했고 가옥침수와 산사태가 속출하였다. 기존의 물길도 바꾸어놓았다. 비록 체감 기록이라는 한계가 있긴해도, 13세기 후반을 살다간 이규보의 서사는 당시가 고온습윤했던 정황을 짐작케한다. 기록에 자주 등장하는 난대성 작물류 예컨대 동정감귤 돗자리재료인 용수초 대나무는 무더울 때 잘 자란다. 이규보가 ‘윙윙거려 짜증난다’고 했던 모기는 무더위에 서식하는 흡혈곤충이다. 13세기 전후 개경 도시인구의 증가로 인한 각종 생활쓰레기가 하천에 투척되어 물 흐름을 방해하였다. 느려진 유속에다 고온습윤 탓에 동물성 부패가 가속되어 각종 악취와 오염이 만연했다. 오염된 물은 인간의 생존과 직결한다. 물오염이 야기한 예측치 못한 죽음은 사회적 공포와 혐오를 조장했다. 혐오와 금기가 낳은 불안감, 고온습윤에 따른 불쾌감은 사람과 사람 사이의 공격성을 유발하였다. 당시는 도시화에 연이어 유통경제의 변동을 둘러싼 대물(對物) 범죄 뿐더러 무더운 낮 동안의 더위를 피해 야간활동이 늘자 야간범죄도 증가했다. 무인집권 전후로 강도 살상 강간 같은 ‘몸’을 둘러싼 사건도 현저해졌다. 도시 개경의 치안이 위태롭게되자 당시 권력은 범죄자를 엄격하게 다루었다. 무인집정이 자주 교체됨에 따라, 직전의 정치세력을 처단하고 공포로써 죄를 억제코자 시전에서 참형을 가하기도 했다. 덕정을 베풀기도 하는데 휼형차원에서 공옥이 시행되었다. 공옥 조치는 수감자를 배려하여 주로 추위에 단행한다. 몇 안되는 사례지만 폭서때 내려진 공옥은 앞선 정종 숙종대(11세기 고온)과 고종 연간에 행해졌다. 여러 사례로 보아 11세기와 마찬가지로 13세기 후반 고려가 고온습윤했던 정황을 짐작케 한다.

The 12th and 14th centuries were very cold. The 11th and 13th centuries were relatively hot. Is it wet or dry at high temperatures? The middle of the Holocene period in the 13th century was a period of high temperature and humidity. Usually, when it is hot and humid, the sky, sea, and land are all subject to water disasters. Tsunamis and frequent rain have made the land soft. House flooding and landslides have occurred frequently. Records of Lee Gyu-bo who lived in the 13th century also show the warm weather back then. Bamboo supplies for Dongsung tangerine mats, an orchid crop, grow well when it is hot. He also said that mosquitoes bother him. At the same time, the mid-latitude area of the Korean Peninsula was hit by a heat wave. Moreover, it was very humid. Air circulation was unstable, which resulted in a lot of thunder and lightning. In the 13th century, even in Goryeo, rivers and seawater frequently overflowed. The disaster caused by the flooding of water caused water turbulence. The land that was supported by soil also collapsed. The existing water roads were also changed. In the 13th century, Goryeo tried to overcome the water turbulence. In the 13th century, collapsed bridges were constructed and construction was frequent, especially in the 13th century. Around the 12th and 13th centuries, various household wastes were thrown into rivers due to the increase in the urban population, interfering with the flow of water. Due to the slow flow rate and high-temperature moisture, animal decay accelerated, and various odors and pollution were prevalent. Contaminated water is directly connected to human survival. The unexpected death of the caused by water pollution promoted social fear and disgust. The anxiety created by disgust and taboos, and the discomfort caused by high-temperature moisture caused aggression between people. Before and after unmanned power, incidents surrounding the 'body' such as robbery, murder, and rape often occurred. At that time, in addition to crimes against the distribution economy, night crimes increased as night activities increased to avoid the heat during the hot day. Moisture in the heat wave mixes animals. Pollutants and odors from animal decay vibrated. The discomfort index caused high stress. The discomfort index caused crimes in the urban society of Gaegyeong. At this time, there were many crimes, rape, and night crimes surrounding the body. At that time, the basic society was very unstable. The urban society of Gaegyeong suffered a crisis. It was necessary to protect the palace where the king stayed. Threatening the king or unstable security was thus established to protect the king. Therefore, a military organization was created to protect the king. The deliberation organization is outside of its original realm and is located near the civil war where the king stays. The king was also threatened by these organizations. As crimes increased in the city's Gaegyeong area, the power at the time dealt with criminals more harshly. Sometimes prisons were added along with punishment in the market As the unmanned government was frequently replaced, they punished the political forces immediately before it and punished them with horror to suppress the crime. At the same time, he took a dual attitude, and the Prison of emptying the jade was often implemented in terms of human form. During the period of King Jeongjong's reign (11th century) and King Gojong's reign, public prison was carried out in a hot and humid imprisonment environment. It supports the situation that temporarily experienced high temperature moisture in the 13th century, as in the 11th century.

머리말

1. 고온과 물의 재난

2. 높은 불쾌감과 범죄

3. 도시 치안과 시위(侍衛) 강화

맺음말

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