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학술저널

Investigative Analysis of the Identity of the Four-Eared Mythical Creature in the Portrait Bricks of the Jin Dynasty Tomb at Foyemiaowan: Also Discussing the Heterologous Homology of Tomb Murals Between Hexi Corridor and Goguryeo During the Jin Dynasties

Investigative Analysis of the Identity of the Four-Eared Mythical Creature in the Portrait Bricks of the Jin Dynasty Tomb at Foyemiaowan: Also Discussing the Heterologous Homology of Tomb Murals Between Hexi Corridor and Goguryeo During the Jin Dynasties

The tomb 87DFM133 located at Foyemiaowan to the east of Duhuang Ancient City Ruins is a painted brick tomb from the transitional period (early 4th century) between the late Western Jin Dynasty and the early Former Liang regime of China. Since its discovery, the tomb has garnered significant academic interest, particularly for the unique depiction of a four-eared mythical creature on the first brick of the sixth layer of portrait bricks set into the screen wall of the tomb's antechamber. This depiction has not been observed in any other tomb murals excavated in China to date, leaving the consensus on its identity yet to be reached by the academic community.This dissertation employs the methods of image feature comparison and documentary analysis to further ascertain the identity of the four-eared mythical creature depicted in the portrait bricks of the Jin Dynasty Tomb at Foyemiaowan, using a similar image found in the Deokheung-ri Goguryeo Mural Tomb in Nampo of the DPRK, as a comparative reference. Additionally, the study also delves into the phenomenon of heterologous homology observed in tomb mural paintings between Hexi Corridor and Goguryeo during the Jin dynasties.Although the two images exhibit different painting styles, the key features of the creatures’ forms are consistent. An analysis of historical texts reveals that the only four-eared creature documented before the Tang dynasty of China(618–907AD) is the “bodan”(“猼訑”, a nine-tailed goat with four ears and eyes on the back) from the Classic of Mountains and Seas, which corresponds to the identity description next to the creature in the Deokheung-ri tomb. Therefore, the four-eared mythical creature depicted in the painted bricks of the Jin Dynasty Tomb at Foyemiaowan is identified as the “bodan” from the Classic of Mountains and Seas. This discovery provides new evidence for the phenomenon of heterologous homology of tomb murals between Hexi Corridor and Goguryeo during the Jin dynasties.

位于敦煌故城以东的佛爷庙湾87DFM133 墓,是一座西晋末前凉初期(4 世纪初)的画像砖墓,其墓室前甬道照壁所嵌画像砖第六层第一砖所绘四耳神兽,因国内已发掘墓室壁画中再未见类似特征图像,学界对其身份的判断至今未有定论。本文根据朝鲜德兴里高句丽壁画墓中出现的另一幅四耳神兽图像的相关特征,通过图像特征对比法和文献材料分析法,对佛爷庙湾晋墓画像砖四耳神兽图像的身份进行进一步的判定,并对两地在两晋时期于墓室壁画创作中彰显出的同源异构现象进行更加全面深入的探讨。研究发现,两幅四耳神兽图像虽然绘画风格不同,但二者图像本身造型的关键特征一致,且经传世文献材料分析可得,中国唐代之前出现的四耳兽形象只有《山海经》记载的“猼訑”,与德兴里墓四耳兽图像旁的身份说明文字相吻合。由此可知,佛爷庙湾晋墓画像砖四耳神兽图像就是《山海经》中的“猼訑”。这一发现为两晋时期河西与高句丽墓室壁画的同源异构现象提供了新的证据。

1 佛爷庙湾晋墓画像砖四耳神兽身份旧说辨正

2 德兴里高句丽墓室壁画猼訑图像与四耳神兽身份的新认识

3 两晋时期河西与高句丽墓室壁画中的同源异构现象

4 结语

参考文献

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