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세계환단학회지 11권 1호.jpg
학술저널

배달국 통치자 환웅의 실존에 대한 시론

A Study on the Sculptures Symbolizing Hwanung in the Age of Hongsan Culture: Focusing on the Statues of People in the Yoseo region

이 연구는 서기전 4500년~3000년의 편년을 갖는 홍산문화의 유적 유물의 해석을 ‘선상문화先商文化’로 뭉뚱그려 해석하는 중국의 입장과 달리 배달과 홍익인간의 키워드를 가지고 해석할 수 있는 근거를 제시함으로써 우리 사서에 끊임없이 등장하는 배달국과 환웅의 실존을 제시하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 우리나라의 최초의 국가 고조선은 환웅의 뒤를 이은 단군왕검이 개국하였고 그 중심 무대는 만주와 한반도이다. 최근 고고학적 자료가 풍부해 지면서 중국 요서 지역에 대한 연구가 고조선 및 배달국에 이르기까지 다양해지고 있는데, 특히 중국 요서 지역의 홍산문화 인물 형상의 출토는 우리 문헌 기록의 환웅 존재와 연결해 볼 수 있는 유의미한 요소가 다분하다. 현재 중국 학계에서도 서기전 3천년경(홍산문화 시기) 요서지역에 국가형성 가능성을 시사하는 만큼, 우리 기록에 분명하게 남아있는 배달국과 환웅에 대해 우리사관의 입장에서 해석하고 단군조선으로 이어지는 계통성을 분명히 하여 홍산문화를 하가점하층문화에서 은상문화로 계통화하려는 중국의 중화주의 사관에 대응하고자 한다.

This paper is a study of human statues consistently found in northeastern China. Many ancient documents, such as 'Samgukyusa', 'Jewang ungi', and 'Sejong Sillok', record the founding process of Gojoseon. “Once upon a time Hwanung, the son of Hwanin, intended to save the human world with a will under heaven. Hwanung descended with Pungbaek, Usa, and Unsa down, ~ He was in charge of grain, longevity, disease, punishment, good and evil. ~ Hwanwoong married Woongnyeo and gave birth to a son, so he called it Dangun Wanggeom.” Dangun's founding of Gojoseon became the basis for awakening national pride and gathering strength whenever Korea was in trouble. Many statues of people in certain poses have been excavated in various historical sites of Hongsan culture such as Banrabsan Mountain, Chomosan Mountain, Dongsanchwi, and Wuharyan. The face shape, size, and materials made are different, but what is common is that both hands are held together, legs are in a bent position, and are found in certain places. In particular, the statue of Heungryung-gu, which was restored to the entire human form, is a figure that makes a sound with its mouth open. Both hands are also gathered, and both legs are bent and intersected, sitting on the floor. The top of the head, navel, and two ears are perforated. t was found in a residence, but it has the same shape as that found in the remains of a ritual. At the end of the Hongsan culture, this statue, which is estimated to be from 3000 A.D., is presumed to be the shape of Hwanung. At the end of the Hongsan culture, the population had already increased, resulting in division of labor, and metal smelting technology had developed. It is very special that the statue expressing the ideas that people of the time valued is a human figure. This can be seen as expressing Hwanung's Hongik human thought as it is. I don't know if the discovered human sculpture is Hwanung's image, but it is very likely that it is the image of a Hongik human being that Hwanung wanted to pursue. Hongik human is a concept that is so important to Koreans that it is determined as an educational ideology. The human statues, ritual relics, and various totemisms of Hongsan culture serve as evidence to demonstrate the background of Dangun's founding of Gojoseon.

Ⅰ. 서론

Ⅱ. ‘배달국’과 ‘환웅’

Ⅲ. 홍산문화의 인물상(人物像)

Ⅳ. 맺음말

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