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KCI등재 학술저널

益山与东亚古代都城

Iksan and Ancient Capitals in East Asia

益山文化遗产具备古代都城的结构、宫城、佛寺、王城基址保存完好,王陵大体完整,还有 “井”字格的城邑道路网,都显示出都城的配置。王宫遗址出土有“首府”铭文的瓦片,史籍记益山 为“故都”,文献与考古支撑了“益山都城说”。益山都城具有东亚都城特征,又具有百济都城特 点。百济国王迫于内外压力,似曾采用“多都制”以应变化,保障生存。泗沘、熊津、益山在百济 武王时期似乎都担负有都城的职能。考古、史籍、古迹、文物均能标识出益山都城的史实,益山 建都符合百济国历史场景,又契合东亚古都类型。益山都城是实际存在的,然相关证据片段、零 散,缺乏完整、系统,可运用“大胆假设,小心求证”的方法进行综括研究,才有可能证实并揭明 其都城面貌与本质。

The cultural heritage of Iksan possesses the structural characteristics of an ancient capital, with well-preserved palace grounds, Buddhist temples, the foundations of the royal city, substantially intact royal tombs, and a road network laid out in a grid pattern resembling the shape of the Chinese character “井”, all indicative of a capital city layout. Excavations at the royal palace site have unearthed roof tiles inscribed with the term of “首府(capital)”, while historical records refer to Iksan as the former capital, with both literature and archaeology supporting the notion of Iksan as an ancient capital. The capital Iksan exhibits features typical of East Asian capitals while also reflecting characteristics unique to Baekje's capitals. Under pressure from internal and external forces, Baekje kings may have adopted a “multi- capital system” to adapt and ensure survival. Sabi, Ungjin, and Iksan seem to have all served as capital cities during the reign of King Mu of Baekje. Archaeological findings, historical records, landmarks, and cultural relics collectively confirm the historical reality of Iksan as a capital city, fitting into the historical context of Baekje and conforming to the ancient capital typology of East Asia. Iksan's status as a capital city is substantiated, though the relevant evidence is fragmentary and lacks completeness and systemization. Only through comprehensive research utilizing the method of “bold hypothesis, careful verification” can we possibly confirm and elucidate the appearance and essence of its capital city.

Ⅰ. 都城概念与百济都城考古新发现

Ⅱ. 东亚古代都城及城制系统

Ⅲ. 百济都城选址与多都制

Ⅳ. 益山都城的实际存在

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