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韓日民族問題硏究 제46집.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

해방 후 해외 한국학교 형성과정

Formation of Overseas Korean Schools After Liberation: From 1946 to 1949, centering on Nishinari Korean Elementary School

Ethnic schools in the society of Korean residents in Japan can be largely divided into Chochongryeon-Korean schools and civil-level Korean schools that are recognized as formal schools by the Korean government. Currently, there are 34 Korean schools overseas, of which 4 are in Japan. Among the four schools in Japan, there are 3 Korean schools in the Kansai region including Osaka. However, the existence of Korean schools among the ethnic educational institutions in Japan is not well known, and even less is known about their early history. This article focuses on the appearance of an elementary school that was launched as ‘Korean School (Our School)’ in Nishinari, Osaka in 1946. In 1948, a new school was built and launched as ‘Nishinari Korean Elementary School’. Nishinari Korean Elementary School existed until 1949, and in April 1950, it reopened as Geumgang Elementary School. It is intended to investigate the process of existence in the Nishinari community and how it was operated. Based on the documents and photographs created by the Nishinari Japanese Education Association at the time, as well as the experiences of those who attended the school, we will look at what the Nishinari Korean Elementary School actually looked like. Because the school existed from 1946 to 1949, we will also look at the policies of the General Headquarters and the Japanese Ministry of Education at the time. We will also look at the characteristics of the Nishinari area and the appearance of the Korean community in order to examine why schools began in the Nishinari area. In 1946, in the Nishinari area, the Korean elementary school established by the hands of compatriots was called ‘our school’. The students, who had been distributed and accommodated in nearby Japanese schools because there was no school building, built a building with donations from compatriots in the Nishinari area and was launched as ‘Nishinari Korean elementary school’ from April 1948. At that time, most of the students were composed mainly of compatriots living in the Nishinari area. Meanwhile, the confrontation between local left and right wing organizations also affected the school, and after the raising of the artificial flag in 1949, it became a school operated mainly by the Nishinari Mindan. As for the research achievements so far, it has been known that ethnic schools have been closed except for the founding school established by Baekdu Academy. However, Nishinari Korean elementary school made administrative preparations, and in 1950, it became an official school in Japan as Geumgang elementary school. Due to the practical limitations of Japan, classes had to be taught in Japanese, but it was found that it was still a school that did not forget the people. If we look at the establishment process and operation of other Korean schools in the future based on these research results, it will be a good data to gauge the direction of Korean schools around the world.

在日韓国人社会の民族学校は、大きく朝鮮総連系の朝鮮学校と韓国政府 から正式学校として認められている民団系の韓国学校に分けられる。現在、海 外には34校の韓国学校が存在するが、そのうち4校が日本にある。日本の4校 のうち、大阪をはじめ関西地域には3校の韓国学校がある。ところが、在日韓 国人の民族教育機関のうち、韓国の学校の存在はあまり知られておらず、設 立当初の姿についてはさらによく知られていない。 この硏究は1946年、大阪西成で「朝鮮人学校(ウリ学校)」として発足した小 学校の姿に注目する。1948年には「西成朝鮮人小学校」として新しく校舎を建て て発足した。西成朝鮮人小学校は1949年まで存在し、1950年4月には金剛小 学校として再び開校した。西成地域の同胞社会でどのような過程を経て存在 し、どのように運営されたのかを究明しようと思う。 当時、西成朝鮮人教育会で作成した文書と写真、そして当時在学経験が ある人々の経験を土台に西成朝鮮人小学校の実際の姿を見てみようと思う。 1946年から1949年まで存在した学校であるため、当時の連合軍最高軍司令部 と日本文部省の政策を同時に見ていく。また、なぜ西成地域で学校が始まった のかを調べるために、西成地域の特性と同胞社会の姿も一緒に見ていく。1946年、西成地域では同胞の手で設立した朝鮮人小学校を「ウリ学校」と 呼んだ。学校の建物がなく周辺の日本学校に分散収容された学生たちは西成 地域の同胞たちの寄付で建物を建て1948年4月からは「西成朝鮮人小学校」と してスタートした。当時の学生たちはほとんど西成地域に居住していた同胞たちを 中心に構成された。一方、地域の左右翼団体の対立は学校にも影響を及ぼ し、1949年の人共旗掲揚事件以後には西成民団が中心となって運営する学校 になった。これまでの研究成果は、白頭学院が建てた建国学校を除いては民 族学校は閉鎖されたと知られていた。しかし、西成朝鮮人小学校は行政的な 準備をし、1950年金剛小学校として日本で正式学校になった。日本という現実 的制約から日本語で授業しなければならなかったが、依然として民族を忘れな かった、現実的に措置を取って同胞の子弟たちを教えた学校であることが分かっ た。このような研究成果を基に、今後の他の韓国学校の成立過程と運営につ いて見ていくと、全世界の韓国学校の方向性を推し量ることができる良い資料に なるだろう。

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 니시나리 한인사회의 성립

Ⅲ. 니시나리조선인소학교 설립과 운영

Ⅳ. 민단계 한국학교 출범과 폐쇄

Ⅴ. 맺음말

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