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韓日民族問題硏究 제46집.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

1900~10년대 대구지역 ‘위생’ 문제와 유력자들의 대응

‘Sanitation’ Issues of Daegu in 1900-1910s and The Responses of Influential People

The purpose of this study is to discuss the activities and meaning of Influential people in Daegu in the 1900-10s in response to sanitation issues. The absolute amount of garbage and feces produced by the growing urban population increased. In particular, feces, which was used as agricultural fertilizer in traditional societies, became excessive and difficult to dispose of in conventional ways, leading to degradation of water quality and disease problems. The sanitation problem was never intended by anyone, but it affected all local people. In the case of Daegu in the 1900-10s, sanitation is mentioned quite a lot in the records of people living in the area. Daegu has a certain difference from Seoul, Incheon, and Busan which were treaty ports and open markets, because Koreans and Japanese lived in a form of ‘mixed housing’, and the time of Japanese mass migration was relatively late. Due to the nature of the hygiene problem, it is necessary to pay attention to the regional characteristics of ‘mixed housing’. The sanitary situation in Daegu at the time is explained by rapid population growth, deterioration of the urban environment, and epidemics of infectious diseases. In particular, the opening of the Gyeongbu Line dramatically increased the number of residents and visitors to Daegu. Daegu’s sanitation-related organizations against that situation had changed from ethnic-specific group to group with a Korean minority and a Japanese majority, and group of an almost an equal number of Korean and Japanese. In this process, the activities of Influential people who had previously worked on sanitation issues are no longer visible, but those who were named to the leadership of the Daegu Sanitation Union continued to engage in activities linked to the government. Some powerful individuals expanded their influence in the community based on their networks between individuals. A community crisis was an opportunity for some. In Daegu, Influential people were called upon by the community to respond to sanitation issues, and they got involved in their own interests and circumstances. Local administrative and police authorities also needed the networks and capital of the Influential people due to a lack of administrative and financial resources. In the end, the sanitation problem of Daegu in the 1900-10s was an opportunity to expand contacts between Koreans and Japanese, and between local influential people and authorities.

本研究の目的は1900~10年代の大邱地域の有力者たちが衛生問題に対応 して展開した活動及びその意味を議論することだ。都市では人口の増加によ り、排出されるごみや糞尿の絶対量が増加した。特に、伝統社会で農業肥料 として使われていた糞尿が過剰状態に至り、既存の方式で処理することがが難 しくなり、水質の悪化と疾病の問題が浮上した。衛生問題は誰も意図したもの ではなかったが、全ての地域住民に影響を及ぼした。 1900~10年代の大邱の場合、当時地域で生活を営んでいた者たちが残した 記録には衛生問題が相当な水準で言及される。大邱は韓国人と日本人が「雑 居」し、日本人の集団移住した時点が比較的遅れたため、開港地及び開市 場だったソウル、仁川、釜山とは多少の違いがある。衛生問題の性格上、「雑 居」という地域的な特徴は注目する必要が十分にある。 当時、大邱の衛生状況は急速な人口増加、都市環境の悪化、伝染病の 流行などと説明できる。とりわけ京釜線の開通は定住人口と大邱を訪問する人 の数を飛躍的に増加させた。これに対応する大邱の衛生関連の組織は民族別 団体から朝鮮人少数と日本人多数で構成された団体、そして朝鮮人と日本人 が同数で構成された団体の流れで変化した。この過程で、以前から衛生問題 に対応してきた有力者の活動はこれ以上捉えられないが、大邱衛生組合の役員陣として名を連ねた人物たちは、持続的に官と連携した活動を繰り広げた。 一部の有力者たちは、個人間のネットワークを基に、地域社会で自分の影響 力を拡大していった。共同体の危機は誰かにとって「機会」だった。 大邱の有力者たちは地域社会から衛生問題に対応することを要求され、自 らの利益と状況により関与した。地方の行政当局と警察当局もまた、行政力と 財源の不足により、有力者間のネットワークと資本を必要とした。結局、 1900~10年代の大邱の衛生問題は朝鮮人-日本人間、地域有力者-権力 機関間の接触面を広げる切っ掛けとなった。

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 대구지역의 인구 증가와 ‘위생’ 문제 대두

Ⅲ. 유력자들의 ‘위생’ 문제 대응

Ⅳ. 맺음말

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