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韓日民族問題硏究 제46집.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

근대 가사서비스노동과 여성 이주

Modern Domestic Service Labor and Women’s Migration: Focusing on Japanese and Korean Houseworkers in Seoul under Japanese colonial rule

This paper examines the historical context of women’s individual migrations during the Japanese colonial period in Keijo (today Seoul), focusing on Japanese and Korean women who worked as domestic workers. The migration of domestic workers during the Japanese colonial era can be largely divided into two periods: prior to the mid-1920s; the former by the migration of Japanese women to Korea, and the latter by the movement of rural Korean women to urban area. Around the time of Japnese annexation of Korea, the influx of Japanese maids seeking higher wages in Korea intensified. Initially, the Japanese settler community had a high proportion of short-term migrant individual males who sought to employ Japanese women capable of domestic works and local mistress roles. However, from the mid-1920s onwards, the number of the employment of Korean women by Japanese households dramatically increased. Such domestic jobs offered them a practical and crucial economic means as domestic workers who were suffering economic difficulties. Consequently, there was a noticeable migration of women aspiring to become domestic workers to urban areas, particularly to Keijo. In contrast to male individual migration, female individual migration was not socially encouraged, perceived as driven by vanity and moral decline. However, in reality, female labor migration stemmed from economic necessity harsher than males. Moreover, due to inadequate industrial development in Korea unable to sufficiently absorb rural populations into industrial labor in urban areas, “houseworker arrangement” emerged as a prominent social solution for socially vulnerable women.

この論文は、日帝時代の京城(現ソウル)で家事労働者として働いていた日 本人女性と朝鮮人女性を中心に、女性の単身移住を取り巻く当代の歴史を探 究するものである。日帝時代の家事労働者の単身移住は、1920年代中盤を 境に、それ以前の日本人女性の渡航と、その後の朝鮮人女性の都市移住を 主要な流れとして区別することができる。統合前後には、朝鮮で高賃金を期待 していた日本人女中たちの移動が本格化した。初期の在留日本人社会は、 短期間の単身男性移住者が多く、彼らは家事労働に加えて現地妻役としての 日本人女性(「韓妻」)を主に探していた。しかし、1920年代中盤を境に、日本 人家庭における朝鮮人家事労働者の雇用が大勢になって、その後、家事労 働者として働くことが経済的に困難な朝鮮女性にとって最も現実的な生計手段と なった。その結果、家事労働者を志す女性たちの都市への移動、特に京城 への移住が顕著に現れた。 男性の単身移住と比較すると、女性の単身移住は社会的には奨励されず、 虚栄心と性的放縦の結果と見なされていた。しかし、実際には、女性の労働 移住は男性よりも経済的必要性からさらに緊急に行われていた。さらに、韓国の 不十分な産業発展のため、農村からの移住者を産業労働に十分に吸収できな かったことから、「女中紹介」が女性の代表的な社会的救済策として台頭した。

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 식민 초기 조선으로 도항하는 일본인 가사노동자들

Ⅲ. 1920년대 중반 이후 상경하는 조선인 가사노동자들

Ⅳ. 맺음말

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