the unity of the cordova khalifate destroyed by the violent internecine struggles in andalus mslim society. accordingly the muslim territory of andalus was divided into kingdoms of the muluk 'al-tawa'if. at the beginning of the year 1085 alfonso thought of capturing saragoza made a deal with 'al-qadir of toledo, by virtue of which he could enter the city on may 6th. this year marked the beginning of the definite superiority of the christian over the muslim, despite the temporary checked caused by the muslim victory at zallaqa on october 23, 1086. the 'almurabitun's victory was due to several unusual features of warfare in andalus : the use of drums to frighten the cavalry, the fanatic war spirit of the sahara tribesmen, camels, and yusuf 'ibntashifin's giants nogro godyguard of four thousand men. in a large measure, however, the victory was achieved by 'almu'tamid's personal valor, and by his having been able to secure the cooperation of the rulers of muluk 'al-tawa'if. yusuf 'ibn tashifin returened to africa and devised a new policy with regard to the quarreling and corrupt andalusian rulers. in 1090, yusuf 'ibn tashifin landed at algesiras to dispossess the petty kings of spain and to organize the muslim there in one solid block. 'almurabitun successively took murcia, granada, almeria, cordova, seville and badajoz. the dispossessed king 'almu'tamid and his family were taken into exile to 'aghmat in africa. 'almu'tamid remained in confinement in 'aghmat untill the moment of his death in 1095.