This is a comparative study on the Orff and Koda´ly systems, each of which has met with significant success in many countries. Elementary Music , emphasized by Orff and shown in his Schulwerk, is not music alone but forms a unity with movement, dance and speech in which one takes part not as a listener but as a participant with voice and primary instruments in the ensemble. On the other hand, ear-training and sight-singing are the two most valued objectives in Koda´ly system. The use of hand signals accompanies reading of music by means of the movable do system. Basically both systems recommend to begin musical education in the early years of a child`s life and insist a total involvement combining muscular response to music, always emphasizing rhythm. Many simple folk tunes are based chiefly on the pentatonic scale and form the center of music education materials of Orff and Koda´ly. Both of these systems have been adapted to many other countries, and it is our responsibility to study further into our folk song materials and the needs of our children necessary for adaptation in Korea.