Finding out historical backgrounds in all fields studies helps us to make a right about studies. Therefore in the pedagogy of music, I think it helps a lot to establish the history of music education and one`s Judgement. Educational current in naturalism in the 18th century began to be recognized the music education as one of the independent course of study in the case of education for the whole people. When educational current in naturalism came into being, there were a lot of social changes. In politics, strong absolutism nation whose royal rights grown up came into being. In the fields of economy, the middle class was formed for mercantilism and for this reason each nation was interested in expanding their colonies. In education part, education absolutism which thinks all things reasonably began to come out. Rousseau, a representative philosopher of naturalism, influenced on philo sephy, laws, education, society and educational thought. Also he had interests in music education and composed many works on drama music, opera, instrumental music, religious motet and so on. On the other hands, as a music critic, he left a lots of writings. He states his opinions on music education through Emil and improved Figure Notation for public music education because he opposed to the education which usually given to only a small number of children. Considering a child`s interests and its developmental stages, he tried to seek a scientific and psychological method of music education. And he established the foundation of music education by emphasizing the fact that music education should be a part of ordinary education for children instead of being special education. Thus Rousseau was intimately related to music. It can be said that his thoughts and influence on music education are significant.