The general purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between musical learning and learning conditions in young adult beginning piano in order to provide guidance towards improving college-level beginning piano teaching. The purpose of this study then is three fold: (1) to examine the learning achievement and rate in learning how to play the piano; (2) to find out factors affecting these three elements of musical learning; and (3) to drive ways towards improving college-level beginning piano teaching. More specifically, this study was designed to answer the following research questions relating to learning conditions: (1) To what extent do physical capacity, intelligence, and musical background affect musical learning?; especially, is there significant correlation between keyboard fluency and physical capacity, music reading and intelligence, and interpretation and musical background?; and (2) What factors affect musical learning from the standpoint of learning-related characteristics in the class? To examine these questions, undergraduate non-music majors(19∼24 years) were observed. The 10-week instructional period consisted of two 40-minute lessons per week for each individual. The investigator taught all subjects individually with the investigator-designed instructional programme focused on keyboard fluency, music reading, and interpretation. Through the pilot study materials and sequencing in the instructional programme were revised and a system of categories for learning-relevant variables emerged. The data related to hypotheses were investigated using a three-point achievement measurement tool designed by the investigator. Other variables (physical capacity, intelligence, musical background, motivation to learn, learning attitude, emotional factors) affecting musical learning were investigated using IQ tests, the students self-reports, investigators reports, and parents reports. No evidence was found in support of stereotypical assumptions in the beginning piano study-related literature that the young adult beginner is at disadvantage in the acquisition of keyboard fluency skills. It appears that the young adult did not have problems related to physical capacity taught in this instruction. In addition, it appears that learning-related characteristics (motivation to learn, learning attitude, and emotional factors) were likely to be more important factors affecting the musical development of the young adult beginners in comparison with selection variables (physical capacity, intelligence, and musical backgound).