The matters of music education should be studied and discussed in various areas. Philosophy, psychology, and social/cultural background may be the most important areas for study because these areas provide a fundamental foundation for music education. Philosophy provides the basis for the value and direction of music education, psychology provides the basis for the content and method of music education, and social/cultural background is needed for an understanding of the existence of music education. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the psychological basis in music education. In order to perform this study, the general approach of psychology is reviewed and the meaning of education and music education is described with an emphasis on the need for a psychological understanding from a music educational point of view. Psychological knowledge and its application to music instruction provides an overall insight into the psychological basis for better music education. The value of music education is significant, although the value differs from that of language, mathematics or science. The application of psychological theories and principles is important to fully realize the value of music education. In this study, theories and principles from various areas of psychology, such as cognitive, humanistic, developmental, and music psychology are discussed. Also, an understanding of musical intelligence and social/cultural background for a music curriculum are described.