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KCI우수등재 학술저널

한반도 唐式 帶裝飾具의 전개와 의미

The Development and Meaning of the Tang-style Metal Belts of the Korean Peninsula

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그동안 당식 대장식구에 대한 연구는 상당히 미진했으며, 설령 그 중요성을 인지했다고 하더라도 단순히 신라의 관인과 관련되었다는 연구에 그쳤다. 이와 같은 문제의식을 바탕으로 한반도에서 출토된 당식 대장식구를 집성하고 집중적으로 검토하였다. 제1단계에 해당하는 성립기에는 기왕에 황룡사형 대장식구로 명명된 문양이 주출된 대장식구가 당식 대장식구와 별개로 구분되는 것이 아니라 실은 전형적 당식 대장식구에 선행하는 단계의 장식구이며 그래서 황룡사형 대장식구와 당식 대장식구는 하나의 범주로 이해함이 합리적이라는 견해를 제시하였다. 제2단계에 해당하는 성행기는 당식 대장식구가 본격적으로 관등의 상징으로서 통일신라 전역으로 확산되는 단계이다. 이 단계의 대장식구는 정형성이 강할 뿐더러 청동제 대장식구라 하더라도 외면에 옻칠을 하거나 철과 함게 사용하는 이른바 ‘철동제’로 세분되어 재질에 따라 위계를 구분하였음을 파악하였다. 아울러 경기 광주 대쌍령리의 고분에서 명문방울과 공반된 사례를 통해 신라의 골품에 따른 관등과 대장식구 재질이 상응함을 추론하였다. 제3단계에 해당하는 퇴조기는 당식 대장식구의 정형성이 붕괴하고 철제의 비중이 높아지는 단계이다. 그 하한은 신라가 멸망하는 935년이 되겠으나, 최근 호서지역의 발굴성과나 중국에서의 당식 대장식구 존속 시점을 고려해 볼 때 고려 광종이 공복을 제정하기 직전까지는 그 명맥을 유지하고 있었던 것으로 보았다. 한반도에서 출토되는 당식 대장식구는 중국의 대장식구를 수용한 신라가 이를 통해 중앙관리와 지방을 통치하는 데 신분표상의 도구로 사용하였고, 이는 당시 동북아시아 국가들의 율령체제와 관련되어 관인을 나타내는 대표적인 물질자료라는 공통성을 지니고 있다.

Pre-existing research on Tang-style metal belts has been quite lacking. Although their significance has been recognized, research has been limited to establishing that they are related to the government officials of the Silla Kingdom. The present article compiled the existing information on the Tang-style metal belts excavated on the Korean peninsula whilst adopting a critical approach. In addition, through an examination of this complied information, the patterns of their use, their deposition in tombs, and changes in the belts themselves were identified, and the possibility that such patterns may reflect temporality was intensively reviewed. Based on this review and the metallurgical and nominal properties of the Tang-style metal belts, the development of this type of artifact could be divided into three stages which were thought to be temporally sensitive. The significance of this finding is that it has dispelled, to a certain degree, the traditional view that these ancient Tang-style metal belts were not useful tools in establishing chronologies due to the conservative nature of their form. During the ‘establishment period’, which corresponds to the first stage, the excavated metal belts feature a pattern that was previously regarded as a characteristic of Hwangnyongsa Temple type metal belts; as such the latter should not be separately distinguished from the Tang-style metal belt tradition but rather be regarded as ornaments of the stage preceding Tang-style metal belts. Accordingly, it is maintained that both Hwangnyongsa Temple type metal belts and Tang-style metal belts could be put in the same category. If so, the period in which these two types of metal belts were in use can be seen to coincide with the period in which Tang-style metal belts were used in China. In addition, the style of Tang-style metal belts can be seen to have changed from patterned to plain forms. In the ‘prevalent period’, which corresponds to the second stage, the Tangstyle metal belts came to be widely used throughout Unified Silla as a symbol of official rank. It was observed that hierarchy was identified by the material used, since metal belts of this stage not only had clearly distinguishable types but could also be subdivided into so-called iron-bronze belts that were lacquered on the outside or had iron components, even if they were bronze metal belts. In addition, it was inferred, through the inscribed bells that accompanied excavated belts from tombs in Daessangrungri, Gwangju, in Gyeonggi-do Province, that official ranks according to the Golpum ranking system corresponded with the material used in the metal belts. In the ‘declining period’, which corresponds to the third stage, the standardization of types of the Tang-style metal belts collapsed and the ratio of iron material increased. It can be inferred that the metal belts from this period corresponded with the emergence of powerful clans from the end of Silla to the beginning of the Goryo Dynasty, since the regions where the belts have been excavated largely overlap with the regions from where metal cattle farming equipment has been excavated. The use of these belts continued until 935, when Silla collapsed; it also appears that they were used until the time King Gwangjong of Goryeo enacted a new system of official uniforms; this is inferred from the results of excavations from the Hoseo region and the time period during which Tang-style metal belts were in use in China. The Tang-style metal belts excavated on the Korean peninsula were used as tools representing status in the central government and amongst the local ruling society in Silla, which had embraced Chinese metal belts. They are considered to have been common representations of government officials, associated with the admi

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 한반도 출토 당식 대장식구 자료

Ⅲ. 유형설정과 편년

Ⅳ. 당식 대장식구의 전개와 의미

Ⅴ. 맺음말

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