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KCI우수등재 학술저널

가마구조로 본 19세기 후반~20세기 옹기가마의 전통과 변화

Tradition and Change in Onggi(甕器) Kiln During the Late 19th Century~20th Century

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본고에서는 19세기 후반~20세기에 조성된 옹기가마를 유형분류한 후 조성시기와 변화원인을 추정해 보았다. 옹기가마는 진흙과 할석으로 축조한 전통적인 단실요가 20세기 초반까지 조성되었으며, 20세기에 이르러 옹기가마는 할석으로 가마 벽체를 축조하거나 벽돌이라는 새로운 축요재료가 사용되었다. 이후 20세기 2/4분기에는 진흙과 할석 등 전통적인 축요재료가 사라지고 벽돌로 축조한 가마가 이 시기를 대표하는 옹기가마가 되었다. 특히 20세기 3/4분기에는 단실요보다 발달된 연실요가 새로이 등장하였다. 이러한 옹기가마는 자기가마와 비교가 된다. 자기가마는 18세기 후반부터 분실요에서 연실요 또는 연실계단식요로 점진적으로 발전되었으며, 축요재료에서도 진흙+할석, 망생이, 벽돌로 순차적으로 대체되었다. 반면에 옹기가마는 진흙+할석, 할석을 쌓은 벽체, 벽돌 등으로 축요재료가 대체되지만 전통적인 가마구조인 단실요가 20세기 전반까지 이어져 내려왔다. 이후 20세기 중반에 이르러야 옹기가마는 자기가마의 영향을 받아 연실요로 전환되었다. 이렇게 전통성이 강한 옹기가마에서 벽돌과 연실요라는 새로운 축요기술이 도입된 원인으로는 일제강점기 도자정책과 20세기 중반의 산림보호법 시행, 대체용기의 보급, ‘광명단 사건’ 등 사회변화를 들 수있다. 이 논문은 19세기 후반~20세기에 조성되었던 옹기가마의 이해를 넓힐 수 있을 뿐만 아니라 조선 후기에서 이어져 내려오는 전통적인 옹기가마가 어떻게 변화하여 근·현대 옹기가마로 이어져 내려오는지 알 수 있다는 점에서 의미가 있다고 생각된다.

In this paper, onggi kilns that were in operation from the late 19th century to the 20th century were classified, and the time period during which they were in use was estimated. The single room kiln, which was a traditional onggi kiln made of clay and stalactite, was in use until the early 20th century. However, in the 20th century, the kiln’s walls were built up by creating layers of stalactite and by using brick as a new material to build the floor and wall frame. In the second quarter of the 20th century, brick replaced traditional materials such as clay and stalactite in building the onggi kilns representative of this period. In the third quarter of the 20th century, the continuous room kiln, which was more advanced than the single room kiln, appeared. In general, starting from the 18th century, porcelain kilns were transformed from the separate room kiln to the continuous room or continuous stepwise kiln. The building materials also changed from clay and stalacite to managsangyi to brick, in that order. On the other hand, in the case of onggi kilns, the building materials changed from clay-stalacite to stalacite used for the wall frame and then to brick. However, in terms of kiln form, the single room kiln was used until the early 20th century and then was replaced by the continuous room kiln only in the mid-20th century, influenced by porcelain kilns. The reason why new kiln construction technologies, such as the use of brick and the continuous room kiln, came to be applied to onggi kilns, which had maintained their traditional methods and forms over a long period of time, was due to an increase in demand for onggi, resulting from the pottery manufacturing policies of the period of Japanese occupation. Consequently, more Korean pottery and porcelain makers came to produce pottery and porcelain. Moreover, due to the introduction of the pottery production enhancement guideline published by the Central Pottery Research Center in the 1920s, the production environment and pottery quality improved, albeit slightly. As a result of the Japanese government’s pottery policy and increase in demand for onggi, modern kiln construction techniques were ntroduced to onggi kiln production partially, leading to the use of brick. In the mid-20th century, the use of onggi kilns rapidly declined following the introduction of the government’s Forestry Protection Act, as well as due to the supply of alternative materials for containers such as plastics and metal, and the incident involving the use of minium glaze. In order to overcome this problem, it is believed that onggi-masters of the time improved the kiln structure from a single room to continuous room structure. This paper has aimed at broadening the understanding of how onggi kilns operated from the late 19th century to 20th century and of how traditional onggi kilns inherited from the late Joseon dynasty became transformed into modern and contemporary onggi kilns.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 옹기의 가마구조와 조성시기

Ⅲ. 자기가마와 비교를 통해 본 옹기가마의 변화요인

Ⅳ. 맺음말

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