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KCI우수등재 학술저널

古代 東北亞細亞 出土 琉璃器의 移入經路와 歷史的背景

Import Routes of Ancient Glassware Excavated in Northeast Asia and their Historical Background

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본 연구에서는 한반도, 일본열도로 이입된 유리기의 이입 경로와 역사적 배경에 대하여 중국대륙의 자료를 함께 검토하여 접근하였다. 최근 논의되고 있는 4세기 김해시 대성동91호분 출토 유리기는 경주시 월성로가13호분 출토 유리기와 5 세기 대릉원고분군 출토 다수의 유리기로 볼 때 신라를 경유한 것으로 추정하였다. 5세기 遼寧省 北票縣 馮素弗墓 출토 5점의 로마 유리기를 통하여 볼 때, 이 시기 신라고분의 유리기 부장은 북방유목민족들의 습속을 계승한 점과 그 이입 경로가 柔然—燕—高句麗를 경유한 초원로 것임을 밝혔다. 특히 5세기 중엽 일본의 최대의 왕릉인 大仙고분에서 신라를 경유한 유리기가 출토된 것은 신라와 왜왕권 간의 직접적인 정치적 교섭을 상징하는 것이다. 5세기 전반 이래 倭가 가장 필요했던 금제품, 철제품과 유리기를 포함한 서역문물을 保有한 가장 근거리에 위치한 나라는 바로 신라였다. 6세기 후반 福岡縣 沖の島 8호제사유구 출토 사산조 페르시아 유리기는 금동제 신라산 마구와 공반되고 北周 李賢부부묘 출토품과 유사한 점에서 신라와 北朝의 교섭에 의해 이입된 것으로 판단하였다. 이는 신라가 한강 하류역을 차지하고 대중국교섭에서 유리한 입지를 확보한 것에 기인한다. 7세기 京都府 上賀茂神社 출토품은 賀茂씨와 신라계 이주민인 秦氏가 혼인관계를 맺고 있는 점에 착안하여, 秦氏와 신라와의 교섭을 통하여 도입된 것으로 추정하였다. 7세기 후반에 이입된 奈良縣 正倉院 소장원환문배는 기형과 원환문의 형태가 칠곡군 송림사 전탑 출토품과 흡사하고, 陝西省 西安市 何家村에서 출토된 점에서 砂漠路를 거쳐 페르시아로부터 신라를 거쳐 이입된 것으로 본다. 8세기 奈良縣 正倉院 소장 淡黃色고배와 鳳首甁 등 이슬람 유리기는 신라의 墨, 琴, 佐波理, 帳籍, 華嚴經과 함께 이를 경유한 것으로 볼 수 있다. 9세기 福岡縣 鴻臚館유적 출토 이슬람 유리기는 신라 인화문토기가 공반되는 것에서, 이 시기 登州에서 泉州에 이르는 신라인의 海路상 광역 관계망을 통하여 이입된 것으로 생각된다. 이상 중국대륙, 한반도, 일본열도 출토 유리기를 통해 볼 때 東亞細亞 실크로드는 5세기대까지 草原路가 활발하게 기능하였고, 6-7세기대는 砂漠路가 성행하며, 8-9세기에는 海路의 역할이 한층 증대된 것으로 보인다.

This study reviews data from mainland China in order to examine the import routes of glassware into Northeast Asia (i.e. Chinese Mainland, the Korean Peninsula, the Japanese Archipelago), as well as their historical background. It has recently been suggested that the glassware excavated from Daeseongdong Tomb No. 91 was introduced via Silla, taking into consideration the glassware excavated from Wolseongro Tomb No. Ga 13 in Gyeongju City, dating to the late 4th century, and the many glass vessels excavated from the tombs of Daeryungwon Complex. Based on the five pieces of Roman glassware excavated from the Tomb of Feng Sufu, Beipiaoxian, Liaoning Province (遼寧省 北票縣 馮素弗墓), it appears likely that the glassware found in Silla ancient tombs represented a continuation of the burial custom of the northern nomadic people; the glassware appears to have been introduced into Silla via Yan (燕) and Rouran (柔然) in the 5th century. This study shows that the glassware excavated in the Japanese Archipelago, (previously claimed to have been imported from China through direct trade) came to Japan via Silla. In particular, the glassware excavated from Daisen Ancient Tomb, the greatest royal tomb in Japan of the mid 5th century, which was introduced into Japan via Silla, is indicative of the presence of direct political relations between the Silla Kingdom and the Japanese Kingdom at the time. The country nearest to Japan that had the goods from the West that the kingdom needed the most since the 5th century, including gold, silver and glass, was Silla. A Sassanian Persian glass boat, dating to around the late 6th century, was excavated from the Okinosima Island Tomb No. 8 in Fukuoka. This glass boat is assumed to have been introduced into Japan as a result of direct trade between Silla and Northern Zhou Dynasty, China. This is because a Silla gilt bronze harness was found at the tomb, and also due to the similarity of the glass boat to another example excavated from the Northern Zhou tombs of Li Xian and his wife. This implies that Silla maintained an advantageous position in terms of trade with China, since it occupied the lower reaches of the Han River; trade between Baekje and Japan Wa at the time was impossible since Silla had occupied the eastern parts of the southern coastal region of the Korean Peninsula, the former lands of the Gaya Kingdom. The 7th century glasswares of the Kamigamo Shrine in Kyoto became the focus of interest when it was revealed that Kamo (賀茂) and the Silla immigrant Hata clan (秦氏) had been in-laws. This suggests that glassware may have been introduced into Japan through trade between the Hata clan (秦氏) and Silla, and handed to the Kamo clan (賀茂氏). A ring decorated cup (圓環文杯) stored in Shosoin (正倉院), in Nara Prefecture, was introduced into Japan in the late 7th century. It appears to have come to Japan from Persia via Silla through the oasis route, since it is similar, in shape and pattern, to that which was excavated from the Brick Pagoda of Songnimsa Temple in Chilgokgun; such goods also appear in the mural of Xinjiang Kumutual Shiku (新疆 库木吐拉石窟) and in Hejiacun, Xianshi, Shanxi Province (陝西省 西安市 何家村). The 8th century light yellow tall cup (淡黃色高杯) and phoenix headshaped glass bottle (鳳首甁) stored in Shosoin (正倉院) are typical examples of Islamic glassware; they are assumed to have been introduced into Japan via Silla, along with Silla ink sticks (墨), Silla harps (琴), Silla bowl (佐波理), Silla family registration (帳籍) and the Silla Avatamsaka Sutra. The 9th century historic site of Kourokan in Fukuoka yielded Silla stamped earthenware along with Islamic glassware; these items are assumed to have been introduced into Japan through the wide network of Silla’s maritime silk road, which ranged from Dengzhou (登州) to Quanzhou

Ⅰ. 序言

Ⅱ. 4世紀 東北亞細亞 出土 琉璃器

Ⅲ. 5-6世紀 東北亞細亞 出土 琉璃器

Ⅳ. 7世紀 東北亞細亞 琉璃器

Ⅴ. 8-9世紀 東北亞細亞 琉璃器

Ⅵ. 古代 東北亞細亞 琉璃器의 系統, 移入 經路와 背景

Ⅶ. 結言

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