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KCI우수등재 학술저널

二條凸帶鑄造鐵斧의 編年과 展開樣相

The Chronology and Developmental Aspect of the Cast Iron Axe with Double Protruding Bands

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이조철대주조철부는 전국 중만기 처음 등장하며 공통적으로 可鍛鑄鐵을 사용한다. 이 글은 명목적속성과 계량적속성을 결합하여 세장방형(I류), 장방형(II류), 방형(III류)으로 대별하고, 신부의 평면 및 측면의 형태적 특징을 결합하여 총 9가지로 세분한 후 각 형식의 편년 및 출토 유구의 성격별 특징과 분포양상을 살펴보았다. I류는 신부 평면형태 역제형, 공부 평면형태 장방형, 신부 측면형태 이등변삼각형으로 BC 4C~AD 1C까지 제작된다. 북방분포권은 취락, 남방분포권은 분묘에서 주로 출토된다. II류는 신부 평면형태 방형 및 제형, 공부 평면형태 장방형>장육각형, 신부 측면형태 이등변삼각형>직각삼각형이다. 장육각형 공부 평면형태와 직각삼각형 신부 측면형태 요소가 새롭게 추가된다. 西漢의 鹽鐵官營化를 통하여 규격화된 제품이 동북아시아 전역으로 확산되며 BC 2C~AD 3C까지 제작된다. III류는 유단식으로 신부 평면형태 제형, 공부 평면형태 장육각형>장방형이다. 신부 측면형태는 직각 및 이등변삼각형이 비슷한 비율을 보이고 단부가 비정상적으로 발달하며 AD 1C~3C까지 제작된다. 각 형식은 평면형태, 중심분포권, 제작시기에서 차이를 보이지만 속성과 제작기술을 상호 공유하였다. 전체적으로는 신부길이가 짧아지면서 인부길이가 길어져 방형화되는 경향성이 뚜렷하다. 그리고 2차 가공 및 변형이 이루어지면서 평면형태상의 변화를 수반한다.

Cast iron axes with double protruding bands (二條凸帶鑄造鐵斧) first appeared in the region of the Yan Dynasty (燕) during the mid-to-late stages of the Warring States Period of China (中國 戰國時代). It seems to have adopted the ‘double band’ element from bronze axes but it is difficult to establish a direct genealogical relationship between the two. The existing method of form classification applied to this artifact has been to utilize cross dating for a limited time period, as well as partial elements. The present research, on the other hand, adopted both nominal and quantitative attributes to classify this artifact into the following three categories: those that are a narrow rectangle in form (Type I), those that are rectangular (Type II), and those that are square (Type III). The characteristic features of each form were investigated and a total of 9 kinds of axes were established by combining the morphological characteristics of the body parts. Type I features an axe head that is shaped like an upside down trapezoid (逆梯形) in plan, and an isosceles triangle in cross-section; the shaft-hole section of the axe is rectangular. The major area of distribution was the Chinese northeast region. This type of axe was manufactured from the 4th century BCE to the 1st century CE. The use of malleable cast iron greatly improved the properties and physical endurance of the axes of this type. In the southern distribution zone, the axes are mainly excavated from tombs; in the northern distribution zone, they are found in settlements. Type II features an axe head that is shaped like a trapezoid (梯形) in plan. The cross-section of the axe head is in the form of an isosceles triangle or a rightangled triangle, with the former representing a higher percentage. The shafthole section of the axe is in the form of a rectangle or an elongated hexagon, with the former representing a higher percentage. The newly added elements 二條凸帶鑄造鐵斧의 編年과 展開樣相 | 47 of this type are the elongated hexagon-shaped shaft-hole sections and the rightangled triangle-shaped cross-sections of the axe heads. Partially, it succeeds the narrow rectangle-shaped elements of the Type I axe. The relatively standardized products of this type have the widest distribution range; they were spread throughout the entire area of the northeast region through the salt and iron agents (鹽鐵官營化) (119 BCE) of the Xihan Dynasty (西漢). This type of axe was manufactured from the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE; from the 2nd century CE, it was regularly distributed throughout the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago. Their performance was reinforced through the secondary processing of the blades of the cast axes. In the west coast area, the axes are excavated in tombs; in the east coast area, they are unearthed in settlements. Type III, also referred to as the ‘stepped style’ (有段式), features an axe head that is shaped like a trapezoid in plan. The cross-section of the axe is shaped like a right-angled triangle or an isosceles triangle; the percentages of the two shapes are the same. The shaft-hole section of the axe is in the form of an elongated hexagon or a rectangle, with the former representing a higher percentage. An abnormally pronounced stepped section can be observed. This axe type was concentrated in the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago after the control of the Han Commanderies had weakened. It was manufactured from the 1st to 3rd century CE. The archaeological contexts of the axes and their local nature are similar to that of the Type II axes. In order to be modified into the ‘stepped style’, both the axe blade and body underwent heat treatment, and the functions of the axes came to be differentiated. The manufacture of this type of axe ceased following the indigenous product

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 연구사 및 기존 연구방향 검토

Ⅲ. 형식분류

Ⅳ. 편년

Ⅴ. 이조철대주조철부의 전개양상

Ⅵ. 맺음말

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