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KCI우수등재 학술저널

南韓地域 高句麗古墳의 構造特徵과 歷史的 意味

Structural Characteristics and Historical Meanings of Koguryo Tombs in Southern Korea

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1981년 春川 芳洞里에서 고구려계 횡혈식석실분의 존재가 보고된 이래로 구조적으로 유사한 고분의 조사가 증가하였으나 이를 고구려 고분으로 특정할 만한 유물이 출토되지 않아 연구는 답보상태를 거듭하였다. 그러나 최근 2000년대 중반 이후 龍仁 寶亭洞古墳을 비롯한 여러 고분에서 고구려 토기가 출토되면서 남한지역 고구려 고분의 존재가 분명해지게 되었다. 이에 본고에서는 그동안 ‘高句麗系’ 또는 ‘高句麗式’으로 불리던 고분 35기를‘고구려 고분’으로 인식하고, 立地와 分布, 墓室의 位置와 築造方式, 羨道의 位置, 墓室의 方向, 墓室의 바닥 施設과 棺臺 및 출토유물 등에 대해 자세한 분석을 실시하여 남한지역 고구려 고분의 특징을 도출하고 편년을 시도하였다. 그 결과 남한지역 고구려 고분은 臨津・漢灘江流域과 北漢江上流, 南漢江上流, 城南・龍仁・華城 일대 등 비교적 넓은 지역에 걸쳐 분포하고 있으나 구조적인 특징에 있어서 강한 정형성을 보이고 있음을 확인하였다. 즉, 이 고분들은 구릉말단의 완사면이나 충적대지 등 저평한 지역을 입지로 하고 있으며, 일부는 여러 기가 열상으로 배치되었다. 모든 고분의 묘실은 右偏在 羨道의 장방형이고, 천정이 확인된 경우는 모두 삼각고임방식이며, 일부 고분에서는 벽체와 바닥에 회칠을 하여 마감하는 등 고구려 고분의 특징적인 속성을 공유하고 있음을 확인하였다. 묘실의 평면 형태와 출토유물을 근거로 편년을 시도하였는데, 세장방형 묘실에 불 다짐 등으로 바닥처리를 하고 관을 안치한 형태의 고분은 5세기 중엽경으로 편년하였으며, 장방형 묘실의 고분은 5세기 후엽경으로 편년하였다. 이러한 편년결과와 역사적 정황을 고려하여 세장방형 묘실의 고분은 5세기 중엽 고구려의 중원지방 진출과 관련하여 축조된 것이며, 장방형 묘실의 고분은 475년 한성공함 이후 축조된 것으로 이해하였다. 아울러 고분의 피장자는 상당한 신분의 소유자로 추정되었으며, 고분군 주변에 취락유적이나 관방시설이 확인되는 점으로 미루어 한성함락 이후 고구려는 한강하류역이나 북한강상류, 남한강상류 등에 대한 영역지배를 시도했던 것으로 이해하였다.

In 1981 a Koguryo-type stone chamber tomb with a horizontal entrance passage was reported at Bangdong-ri in Chuncheon for the first time in Southern Korea. Since then, a number of tombs similar to the Bangdong-ri tomb in terms of structural features were found in southern Korea. However, few artefacts were found in these tombs which are typically of the type found in Koguryo-type tombs. Subsequently, little progress was made in studying this type of tomb in southern Korea. Since the second half of the 2000s, cases in which Koguryo pottery was found in this type of tomb increased in number. As a result, the existence of Koguryo tombs in Southern Korea was confirmed. On the basis of the above, I classified thirty-five so-called ‘Koguryo-type’ tombs as ‘Koguryo tombs.’ Then, an attempt was made to formulate their characteristics and determine their chronological relationships. For this purpose, their diverse attributes were compared with one another, including the location and distribution of the tombs, the positions of the entrance passage and chamber, the way in which the chamber was constructed, the orientation of the chamber, the floor type of the chamber, the type of coffin platform, and grave goods. Analysis revealed that the tombs are widely distributed over the Imjin-Hantan River basins, the upper reaches of the Bukhan and Namhan Rivers, and the Seongnam-Yongin-Hwaseong area. Nonetheless, they show very formalized characteristics in their structural features. These tombs are located in flat lowland areas, such as the base of a hill or an alluvial plain. Some of the tombs are linearly distributed. All chambers have common characteristics in terms of chamber shape (rectangular) and entrance passage position (to the right side of the chamber). Also, when ceilings were identified, it was possible to confirm that all of the tombs had intersecting triangular ceilings. In addition, some of the tombs were found to have whitewashed walls and floors. It is significant that these features are also observed in typical Koguryo tombs. In order to see the chronological relationships of the tombs, the chamber shape and grave goods were considered. As a result, their chronological relationships were determined as follows. The tombs that have a long-rectangular shaped chamber and a coffin placed directly on the fire-hardened chamber-floor without a coffin platform are dated to the mid-fifth century CE. The tombs with a rectangular shaped chamber are dated to the late-fifth century CE. This chronology, together with historical circumstances, suggests that the tombs with a longrectangular shaped chamber were constructed in relation to the expansion of Koguryo into central Korea in the mid-fifth century, and that the tombs with a rectangular shaped chamber were made after Hanseong fell in 475 CE. Moreover, those who were buried in the tombs seem to have been individuals with high status. Finally, settlement or fortress sites found around the areas where the tombs are found indicate the possibility that Koguryo attempted to govern the lower reaches of the Han River and the upper reaches of the Bukhan and Namhan Rivers as part of their territory.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 南韓地域 高句麗 古墳의 構造

1. 立地와 分布

2. 築造技法과 構造

3. 出土遺物

Ⅲ. 南韓地域 高句麗 古墳의 編年

Ⅳ. 南韓地域 高句麗 古墳의 築造背景과 意味

Ⅴ. 맺음말

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