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KCI우수등재 학술저널

三國時代騎兵과 騎兵戰術

The Cavalry and Cavalry Tactics of the Three Kingdoms Period

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본고에서는 고분벽화와 고분유물, 문헌에서 관찰되는 관련 자료를 바탕으로 고구려와 백제, 신라, 가야 기병의 유형과 기병전술에 대하여 고찰하였다. 고구려 기병은 고분벽화를 통해 기사형(騎射型)·장창무장형(長槍武裝型)·갑주무장형(甲胄武裝型)·개마무사형(鎧馬武士型)으로 분류하고, 각 유형의 성격은 세계 전쟁사에 등장하는 궁기병(弓騎兵)·창기병(槍騎兵)·갑기병(甲騎兵)·철기병(鐵騎兵)과 같은 것으로 파악하였다. 백제와 신라, 가야의 경우 풍부한 고분 출토 유물을 통해 A~D형 기병의 존재를 상정하고, A형은 궁기병 또는 창기병, B형은 갑기병, C형은 철기병, D형은 장식기병으로 규정하였다. 고구려는 4세기 이전부터 기병을 운용하였는데, 이때는 기사형 또는 장창무장형기병이 주력이었다. 안악 3호분이 축조되는 4세기 중엽을 전후한 시기에 인마(人馬) 모두 갑주로 중무장한 중장기병을 도입하고, 5세기에 들어서서 기마 충격전이 가능한 밀집중장기병대를 확립하였다. 백제와 신라, 가야도 고구려에 이어서 기병을 운용하였는데, 4~6세기에 걸쳐서 기병집단을 보유하거나 마주와 마갑, 갑주로 중무장한 중장기병과 위세적인 성격을 지닌 장식기병을 도입하는 등 기병의 보급과 운용이 활발하였다. 이상과 같은 기병의 유형과 전개과정은 특정 기병전술 또는 기병전술의 변화와 밀접하게 관계 있는 것으로, 문헌자료와 함께 볼 때 삼국시대에는 일대일 기병전술(騎兵戰術)·기습전술(奇襲戰術)·추격전술(追擊戰術)·충격전술(衝擊戰術)을 중심으로 다양한 기병전술을 운용하였음을 알 수 있었다. 이때 기병은 단독 또는 보기합동으로 출전하였으며, 특히 보기합동전(步騎合同戰)의 경우 국가 간에 치룬 대규모 전쟁에 사례가 많고 가야는 주로 보기합동전으로 일관하였던 것으로 추정하였다.

This study aims to review the cavalry and cavalry tactics of Baekje, Silla, Gaya and Goguryeo through wall paintings, artifacts from ancient tombs, and relevant documents. First, the study looked into the types and features of cavalry in the Three Kingdoms Period. The Goguryeo cavalry contingent consisted of the horse archer type, armed lance type, armed armour type and gaema warrior type which correlate, respectively, to the horse archer, lancer, armored cavalry and ironside of other nations. The cavalry contingent of Baekje, Silla, and Gaya also consisted of four different types (A~D): Type A, horse archer or lancer; Type B, armored cavalry; Type C, ironside; Type D, formal cavalry. The emergence and development of the cavalry of the Three Kingdoms was then examined using wall paintings and artifacts from ancient tombs. Goguryeo began to use a cavalry regiment before the 4th century, and it was found that their cavalry contingent was more likely to be oriented towards knight type or armed lancer type cavalrymen. In the early 4th century, heavy cavalry was introduced and by the middle of the 4th century, when the Anak tomb No.3 was constructed, it came to be completed. Concentrated heavy cavalry regiments that performed mounted combat were formed in the beginning of the 5th century. On the other hand, cavalry was introduced to Baekje, Silla, and Gaya in the late 4th century, which is in fact later than Goguryeo. Cavalry forces propagated in these regions rapidly from the 5th century. In the case of Baekje, the small sized cavalry groups of the 4th century became larger. In Silla and Gaya, heavy cavalry regiments emerged which used horse armor and helmets simlilar to those of the gaema warriors of Goguryeo. Rulers began to have formal cavalries for themselves from this period, and this trend apparently appeared in the Gaya region as well. Lastly, this study considered the cavalry tactics of the Three Kingdoms Period using the results of the above analysis, as well as relevant documents. It could be confirmed that amongst the Three Kingdoms, cavalry tactics such as one to one cavalry tactics, raid tactics, chase tactics and impact tactics were dominant at the time. Usually, only cavalry forces or the combined arms of cavalry and infantry were dispatched for battle. Most of the large scale battles between the nations were done by combined cavalry and infantry forces. Apart from certain cases, Gaya was consistent in using the combined arms of cavalry and infantry.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 三國時代騎兵의 􆩦型과 性格

1. 古墳壁畵로 본 高句麗騎兵

2. 古墳遺物로 본 百濟와 新􆦯, 加耶騎兵

Ⅲ. 三國時代騎兵의 出現과 展開

1. 高句麗

2. 百濟

3. 新􆦯

4. 加耶

Ⅳ. 三國時代騎兵戰術

1. 騎兵單獨戰術

2. 步騎合同戰術

3. 加耶의 騎兵戰術

Ⅴ. 맺음말

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