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KCI우수등재 학술저널

한반도 중서부지역의 馬韓墳丘墓

A Study on the Mahan Bungumyo in Korea mid-western region

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이 글의 목적은 한반도 중서부지역에 자리하는 마한 분구묘에 대한 기존의 연구성과를 토대로 여러 분석을 실시하여 분구묘의 발전과 변화과정을 추론하고,그 시공간적 변천상을 설명하는 데 있다. 이를 위해 분구묘의 속성을 검토하여 입지와 분포양상, 지역별 현황, 대상부의 평면형태, 분구의 축조방식 등을 분류한 후 이에 대한 분석을 실시하였다. 분석결과 분구묘는 한반도 중서부지역인 충청 서해안과 금강 유역,전북 서해안 등지의 저평한 구릉에 입지하면서,여러 형태적 변화상과 유물의 변천상을 가지고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 이러한 변화양상에 근거해 본고에서는 분구묘를 총 3기로 나누어 살펴보았다. 분구묘의 유입기에 해당하는 I기에는 분구묘가 저평한 구릉의 정상부에 일정한 거리를 두고 조성되었으며,주구 내부에 토기의 매납 또는 파쇄 행위 등을 통한 제의적 과정이 있었던 것으로 추정된다. 확산기인 II기에는 동일 유적 내 군집양상과 함께 동일 분구묘 내 추가매장시설이 등장하는데, 이는 분구묘 집단 내 특정집단의 권력화와 함께 이들의 결속관계 또는 혈연성의 표현장치로 보았다. 변화기인 III기에 이르면 대상부 평면형태의 변화만이 아닌 규모에도 변화가 일어나 점차 대형화되기 시작하며,축조방식에 있어서도 수평확장현상이 나타난다. 하지만 이 시기에 이르러 점점 강해져가는 백제세력에 밀려 남하하던 분구묘 집단은 전남지역으로 이주하거나 백제에 서서히 병합되는 것으로 보이며,이러한 모습은 분구묘 내 주매장시설의 변화 또는 부장유물의 양상이 변화하는 양상을 통해 확인할 수 있다.

The main purpose of this paper is to infer the developmental process of the changes of Bungumyo(mounded tomb with an encircling ditch) in Korean midwestern region through more detailed analysis based on the existing studies, and to examine it in temporal and spatial aspects. In order to interpreting the trace of the structures, they are classified by locations of sites, the distribution patterns, the local contexts, the morphological features of Daesangbu(inside Jugu) and the technical aspects of construction. These attributes are, then, analyzed in depth. Based on the proposed methodology given above, in terms of the geographical distribution patterns of sites, the mound belonged to the early period initially located on the top of mountain. The subsequently built ones were placed on gentle slope area. With regarding morphological features of Daesangbu(inside Jugu), Type I had appeared first. After that, Type II and III which are square shape and Type IV which is trapezoid shape appeared in order. The technical aspects of construction have been showed based on ‘first mound second entomb’ that is the whole structure of mound were built without burial chambers in first, and then each burials are placed in later. Moreover, gradual gigantic expansion is also examined. While the main burial pattern is pittombs, Bungu and Jugu are also found in later period. From the data analyses, the patterns of Bungumyo can be categorized into three types in chronological senses. Stage I is the inflow period of Bungumyo and mounds mainly distributed in the northwestern region and the basin of Geumgang. Bungumyo that appear sole on the top of the mounds did not show any burial evidence. It could be derived to the lowland due to post-depositional process. Those could have been constructed between the 2nd century B.C and early 2nd century A.D. Stage II is spreading period of Bungumyo. They have been constructed in all mid-western region of Korea. At this stage, Bungumyo have been located in ridgeline part and oblique part near ridgeline part. They tend to cluster in more or less ten of them. In terms of morphological features of Daesangbu, the square shaped forms are mostly dominated. However, trapezoid forms are also found in the limited areas such as southwestern regions of Geumgang. The technical aspects of construction, 나 Type which is single burial chambers is found. But the multiple burial chambers that are classified to 다 Type are also found. It is roughly to estimate that these are dated between early 2nd century and the early 3rd century A.D. Stage III is the transitional period of Bugumyo. The location of Bungumyo shifted ridgeline part to oblique part mostly, and some of Jugu are overlapped because of serious clustering trend within the site. The most of sites is highly clustered in Gochang and Buan of southwestern of Geumgang, other than few exceptions of observed sites in the northwestern and the basin of the Geumgang. Following this, the morphological features of Daesangbu are dominated by the trapezoid shaped forms than the square shaped forms. In the technical aspects of construction, multiple burial chambers of 다 Type, and other forms such as 라 and 마 Type prevailed. This prevalence explains Stage III shows more concrete social network reinforced as complex society developed. The date of this period is thought during the periods between middle and late 3rd century and late 5th century A.D. From the given archaeological data, these cultural significance of burial system and its process are related to the region of Backje which have been continuously expanded their territory. That means, the Bungumyo culture could have been subordinated by advanced foreign culture represented to Backje.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 분구묘의 정의와 속성

1. 분구묘

2. 분포

3. 입지

4. 평면형태

5. 축조방식

Ⅲ. 분구묘의 분석

1. 분구

2. 매장시설

3. 출토유물

Ⅳ. 한반도 중서부지역 마한 분구묘의 시공간

1. I기(流入期)

2. II기(擴散期)

3. III기(變化期)

Ⅴ. 맺음말

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