Objectives：The purpose of this study was to find the differences of temperamental characteristics of Korean children according to family environment and developmental history. Methods：1) The mothers whose children had been educated at twenty-five Samsung Child Care Centers nationwide participated in the survey using Parent Temperament Questionnaire for Children (PTQ) and the Child Development Questionnaire (CDQ). 2) The temperament of 1,175 children whose mothers completed PTQ were classified into 5 diagnostic clusters (Easy, Intermediate Low, Intermediate High, Difficult, Slow-To-Warm-Up) according to the method proposed by Fullard et al. 3) The results of classification were compared and analysed statistically according to each CDQ parameters. Results：Statistically meaningful difference in the distribution of temperamental clusters were found in the CDQ parameters such as birth order of children, number of intimate friends, children’s relationship with their peers, children’s relationship with their siblings, children’s relationship with their parents, type of milk feeding, motor development of children during 2 years after birth, motor development during from age 2 to 5, stranger anxiety, present health state of children, and relationship between parents. After all, the proportion of Easy type was greater in the children who were first-born, or who had good relationship with their peers or family, fast motor development, mild stranger anxiety, good health condition, or good relationship between each parent. Conclusion：This study shows that the distribution of temperamental cluster was significantly different in several parameters of family environment and developmental history of Korean children. The children with fast development, good interpersonal relationship or favorable family environment are more likely to be the Easy type.
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