The concept of biologic attachment of load-bearing implants has developed over the past decades as an alternative to the difficulties associated with long term implantation using mechanical fixation and bone cement. The choice of implant material is also as critical an element as site preparation or insertion procedure. The properties of implants that affect host tissue responses are not limited to chemical composition alone, but also include shape, surface characteristics, site of implantation, and mechanical interaction with host tissues. Initial mechanical interlocking prevents micromotion and may be a prerequisite for direct bone apposition. A hard tightening of screws does not necessarily mean a stronger fixation and final tightening of the fixtures is dependent on the experience of the operator. Removal torque is lower than insertion torque. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the removal torques at the bone-implant interface of polished and sandblasted Titanium. This experiment will give insight into important factors that must be considered when interpreting in vivo screwing forces on implants during the connection of the transmucosal abutments. We evaluated the significance of different surface textures by comparison of the withdrawal forces necessary for removal of otherwise identical rough and polished implants of Titanium and also evaluated interfacial response on the light microscopic level to implant surface. And the priority of the area of insertion on osseointegration were evaluated. 9 Titanium implants - among them, 3 were for the developmental - of either a smooth or rough surface finish were inserted in the dog mandible in the right side. 3 months later Kanon Torque Gauge was used to unscrew the implants. The results were as follows : 1. No significant difference was seen in the removal torque due to variation in surface treatment, 23 Ncm for the sandblasted and 23.33 Ncm for the polished surface (p > 0.05). 2. Implants in the anterior (25 Ncm) mandible showed better resistance to unscrewing in comparison to ones in the posterior (18 Ncm) region (p < 0.05). 3. Developmental fixtures (22 Ncm) had similar pullout strength to the control group (p > 0.05).
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