The action of acetylcholine on the sodium plus potassium activated ATPase activity in the rabbit red cell membrane has been investigated and the experiments were also designed to determine the mechanism of action of acetylcholine on the ATPase activity. The following results were observed. 1. The activity of the NaK ATPase from red cell membrane is inhibited by acetylcholine. 2. The ratio of inhibition of NaK ATPase by acetylcholine is decreased by raising the potassium concentration, and is increased by raising the sodium concentration. 3. The ATPase activity is increased by small amounts of calcium but inhibited by larger amounts. The ratio of inhibition of the enzyme by acetylcholine is increased by raising the calcium concentration. 4. The inhibitory action of acetylcholine on the NaK ATPase activity was not related to the sulfhydryl group of cysteine, the hydroxyl group of threonine, or the carboxyl group of aspartic acid. 5. The inhibitory action of acetylcholine on the ATPase activity is due to amino group of the enzyme of NaK ATPase.