국소한냉자극이 전신 및 국소혈액순환에 미치는 영향과 동계에 있어서 한냉에 대한 적응을 관찰하기 위하여 동계 및 하계에 편균연령 21세의 남녀 대학생 각 60명 및 50명을 대상으로 5℃의 냉수에 일측 손을 담구어 3분간 국소한냉자극을 가하였다. 침수 1, 2, 3분과 회복기 1, 3, 5분에 침수한 측과 침수 반대측에서 평균혈압, 분시심박수, 광전 모세혈관 맥박의 파고, 피부전기저항을 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 국소한냉자극시 혈압은 증가하였고 하계에서 동계보다 더 큰 증가를 보였다. 회복기에 동계는 서서히 대조치로 회복되나 하계에는 대조치보다 유의하게 감소하였다. 분시심박수는 침수시 증가하며 하계에서 동계보다 더 증가하였고 회복기에는 동계 및 하계 모두 대조치보다 감소하였다. 광전 모세혈관 맥박의 파고는 동계에는 침수 및 침수 반대측 모두 감소하였으나 침수한 측에서 더 크게 감소하였으며 이는 침수한 측에 있어서 한냉의 국소효과에 기인한 것으로 보인다. 하계에는 동계보다 작은 감소를 보였으며 회복기에는 더 빠른 회복을 보여 대조치보다 증가하였다. 피부전기저항은 침수시 침수 반대측에서는 감소하나 침수한 측에서는 유의하게 증가하였다가 회복기에 서서히 감소하였다. 침수 반대측의 감소는 동통에 의한 반응이 한냉에 의한 반응에 첨가되어 나타난 것으로 보이며, 침수한 측은 한냉에 의한 국소효과가 크기 때문인 것으로 보인다. 이상으로 5℃의 국소한냉자극시 전신적 반응은 한냉자극에 의한 동통성 stress에 기인한 반응이 우세한 것으로 생각되며 김 등<sup>39)</sup>의 보고와는 달리 동계 및 하계의 반응의 차이는 계절에 따른 한냉자극에 대한 주관적 감각의 차이에 의한 것으로 동계에서 한냉기후에 의한 국소한냉자극의 적응현상은 나타나지 않는 것으로 사료된다
A possibility whether the appearance of adaptation to cold climate during winter could occur or not in Taegu area was evaluated by comparing the data obtained in winter with that obtained by the same method in summer. Circulatory response was induced by the immersion of one hand in the cold water. The systemic and local responses in the blood circulation from the immersed hand and the unimmersed opposite hand were observed simultaneously. In addition Galvanic skin resistance(GSR) that is influenced by the activity of autonomic nervous system and the vascular tonicity was recorded. The experiment was performed by examining sixty healthy college students in winter and fifty in summer, whose mean age was 21.0, mean weight 60.6±0.90 kg(male) and 48.3±0.98 kg(female). The cold stimulus was applied by immersing the left hand into the cold water of 5℃ for 3 minutes, and the response was observed on immersed left hand and unimmersed right hand simultaneously. The observation was made through determining mean blood pressure, heart rate, amplitude of photoelectric capillary pulse (APCP) and GSR. The results obtained are as follows: The mean blood pressure was elevated during the cold stimulation. The increase of blood pressure in summer was more remarkable than in winter. At the recovery period the blood pressure was decreased to the control level in winter but the decrease below the control level was observed in summer. The increase of heart rate in summer was more remarkable than in winter during the cold stimulation. At the recovery period heart rate in both winter and summer was decreased below the control level. During the cold stimulation the APCP was decreased on both hands in winter. However it was more prominent on left hand indicating additional direct cold effect on immersed hand. In summer, the decrease of APCP during immersion was less remarkable than that in winter, but the regain of APCP was faster than that in winter at the recovery period. And the prompt increase of APCP over the control level has been obtained at the 3 minutes of the recovery period. The GSR was remarkably increased on immersed hand but slightly decreased on unimmersed opposite hand during the cold stimulation. Thus the finding on immersed hand indicates that the local direct effect of cold water is more prominent than the systemic effect, where as the finding on unimmersed hand indicates that the circulatory response to painful stress elicited by the cold stimulation is more prominent than cold temperature itself. In summary, it seems that the systemic circulatory response to the local cold stimulation of the one hand is arised more from the secondary elicited pain sensation and less from the low water temperature. On the contrary to the report of Kim et<sup>39)</sup>, the adaptation phenomena in blood pressure to the relatively mild cold climate in winter was not observed in this study. The difference of circulatory response observed in this study between winter and summer may be due to the difference of the magnitude of subjective sensation of the cold water stimulation by the seasonal changes in air temperature.