Physiological analysis of swimming in 13 (age:16.3 years, freestyle swimming) and 15 (age:17.2 years, breast stroke swimming) high school boys through oxygen uptake and oxygen debt measurements were performed. The following results were obtained. 1. In freestyle swimming oxygen debt was greater and mechanical efficiency was lower in subjects with less speed. In beginner efficiency was only 1.35%, whereas, in a more skilled subject it ranged to 4.28%. The mean efficiency was 2.59%. 2. In freestyle swimming the speed-oxygen debt curve was convex to the speed axis and the curve shifted to the right the more the speed was greater. 3. Maximal oxygen uptake in breast stroke swimming was 2.51 l/min or 41.8 ml/kin/kg and was 79.3% of treadmill running. Maximal pulmonary ventilation in breast stroke swimming was 73.1 l/min and was 87% of treadmill running. Maximal ventilation equivalent was 2.89 liters. 4. In subjects with greater speed of breast stroke swimming maximal oxygen uptake and mechanical efficiency of swimming were greater. The mechanical efficiency of breast stroke swimming averaged 1.08% (range:0.51 ~ 1.70%). The coefficient of correlation between speed and efficiency was r=.87.