The effects of Physical exercise, gymnastics and sports on the cardiopulmonary function were studied in the middle and high school toys. The subjects were divided into 4 groups; non-training group and training group in both middle school and high school boys. In the above groups, pulmonary function studies were performed, and blood pressure and the heart rate were also checked to evaluate physical fitness during and immediately after running exercise on the tread-mill, with the speed of 5 MPH and elevation of 9% and 11.25%. The types of sports in the training group were base ball, body building, Taekwondo (Korean style boxing) and hand ball. The results obtained were as followings: 1) In the training group, cardiopulmonary function showed some tendency of the increase comparing to the non-training group. 2) The increase in cardiopulmonary function was observed according to the age became older, but the clear changes on cardiopulmonary function was not observed as the difference of the group between the training and the non-training. 3) The expiratory volume was decreased as the increase of age except 17 years of age for the value of the per kg body weight. 4) In the non-training group, the mean value of oxygen consumption under maximum work load was increased, while those in the training group was decreased. But it may be noted that oxygen consumption for the expiratory volume was increased in the training group, and that the oxygen cost in the training group was .higher than that of the non-training group. 5) The pulse pressure of the high school group during and immediately after running exercise was observed in the higher value comparing with that of the middle school group It was suggested that the changes of the pulse pressure was owing to the method of determination and that to the decrease of diastolic pressure caused by the decrease of peripheral vascular resistance up to critical closing pressure. 6) Any differences of the changes in the heart rate between the training group and non-training group was not observed during and immediately after running exercise. 7) The relative value of the expiratory volume to the heart rate was decreased in the elder age group.