The early plasma gastrin responses to single oral glucose or casein solution were studied in the same normal subjects on different days. After an overnight fast, glucose or casein solution was ingested within few minutes at the breakfast time. The plasma gastrin responses to these solutions were compared and contrasted with the concentration when the subjects received glucose solution intravenously. Results were as follows: 1) Rapid intravenous glucose infusion did not produce any changes in the plasma gastrin concentration. 2) Plasma gastrin concentration rose and peaked within 10 minutes after an oral liquid ingestion and then decreased substantially by 15 minutes, but remained slightly above fasting levels at 60 minutes. 3) There was no significant difference between the mean plasma gastrin concentrations after glucose of casein ingestion, but each fluid produced a significant increase in serum gastrin above fasting levels. 4) The subjects who produced high plasma gastrin response to glucose solution did so to casein solution. Conversely a low response to one solution reflected a low response to the other solution. 5) From the above results, authors discussed that individual responsibility rather than the sorts of meals is the factor in the determination of the magnitude of the early gastrin response.