It is well known that mammalian alveolar membrane is covered with a very thin layer of surfactant film which characteristically reduces surface tension of alveolar membrane, and maintains alveolar stability. Since Clements in 1957 demonstrated that the surfactant is extractable by mincing the lung tissue in saline, various studies on the subject have been succeeded by many workers. However, the effect of radiation on the surfactant is not well clarified. Present study was attempted to observe the effect of x-irradiation on the activity of surfactant in rabbits. X-ray in dose of 300 r, 600 r or 900 r was irradiated to the chest of rabbits. The lung was removed from normal or irradiated rabbits sacrificed by arterial blood shedding, and lung-saline extract, adding 3 grams of lung tissue to 50 mili-liters of saline, was prepared by means of Vertis homogenizer. Tension-area diagram of lung extract was recorded automatically by a modified Langmuir-Wilhelmy balance with a synchronized recording system designed in this department. The surface tension of lung extract was measured at 1st, 2 nd, 3 rd, 7 th and 15 th post-radiation day in 300 r irradiated group, at 3 rd, 7 th and 15 th post-radiation day in 600 r irradiated group, 3 rd and 7 th post-radiation day in 900 r irradiated group respectively. For the histo-pathological study, lung tissue preparations were made in all irradiatiated groups on the day of experiment and in normal group. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The minimal surface tension, maximal surface tension and stability index of normal rabbits lung extracts were 7.68 dynes/cm, 38.84 dynes/cm, and 1.39 respectively. 2. The activity of surfactant was depressed prominently by x-irradiation. However, increase in the dose of x-irradiation did not show any significant change in the degree of surfactant activity suppression. The most marked depression in surfactant was observed at the third post-radiation day in all irradiated groups. 3. Activity of surfactant depressed by x-irradiation showed a tendency of recovering to normal on 15 th post-radiation day. 4. The tendency of change in activity of surfactant following x-irradiation was somewhat correlative with histo-pathological changes. But the degree of depression of surfactant by x-irradiation did not correspond to the degree of histo-pathological changes, and recovery of lung tissue from radiation damage, tissue edema and congestion, seemed to be followed by restoration of surfactant activity. 5. The width of the tension-area diagram was measured at the surface area of 40% in lung extract of normal and x-irradiated rabbits. And it was found that the changes of the width corresponded well with that of minimum surface tension and of stability index in all normal and x-irradiated groups.