Review : Classification, Structure, and Bioactive Functions of Oligosaccharides in Milk
- Mohammad Al Mijan Yun Kyung Lee Hae Soo Kwak
- Food Science of Animal Resources
- Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources 제31권 제5호
- 등재여부 : KCI등재
- 631 - 640 (10 pages)
Milk oligosaccharides are the complex mixture of six monosaccharides namely, D-glucose, D-galactose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, L-fucose, and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. The mixture is categorized as neutral and acidic classes. Previously, 25 oligosaccharides in bovine milk and 115 oligosaccharides in human milk have been characterized. Because human intestine lacks the enzyme to hydrolyze the oligosaccharide structures, these substances can reach the colon without degradation and are known to have many health beneficial functions. It has been shown that this fraction of carbohydrate can increase the bifidobacterial population in the intestine and colon, resulting in a significant reduction of pathogenic bacteria. The role of milk oligosaccharides as a barrier against pathogens binding to the cell surface has recently been demonstrated. Milk oligosaccharides have the potential to produce immuno-modulation effects. It is also well known that oligosaccharides in milk have a significant influence on intestinal mineral absorption and in the formation of the brain and central nervous system. Due to its structural resemblance, bovine milk is considered to be the most potential source of oligosaccharides to produce the same effect of oligosaccharides present in human milk. This review describes the characteristics and potential health benefits of milk oligosaccharides as well as the prospects of oligosaccharides in bovine milk for use in functional foods.