해방 후 우리나라의 교육운동에는 해방 직후의 새교육운동과 1980년대 이후의 열린교육 운동이 있다. 두 운동은 권위적 교육을 극복하고 아동을 존중하려는 이념에서 시작되었다. 새교육운동이 아동중심ㆍ생활중심이라는 이념을 수업과 학생생활에 모두 적용하려고 한 반 면 열린교육운동은 수업에서 아동을 존중하기 위하여 아동수준에 맞게 개별적인 수업을 하 려는 형태로 나타났다. 새교육운동은 학교생활전체에서 아동이 중심이 되어 사회생활을 미 리 경험하는 형태로 운영했기 때문에 아동의 자치를 폭넓게 인정한 반면 열린교육은 개별적 수업을 목표로 하여 수업의 효율성을 기했기 때문에, 그 안에서만 아동의 권한을 인정하였 다. 두 교육운동의 성공조건은 리더를 중심으로 한 교직문화 형성, 자율적인 학교운영권 확 보, 당시 사회의 이상을 반영하는 교육이념의 설정 등이었다. 반면에, 학교에 대한 경직된 통제, 획일적인 국가교육과정령, 학벌주의사회의 입시경쟁 등은 두 운동에 대한 제약조건이 되었다.
Korean have tried to reform their education system since 1945, when Korea was liberated from Japanese Imperialism. There were two remarkable education movements that succeeded in reforming the vestiges of Japanese Imperialism. One was the New Education Movement(N.E.M) from 1945 to 1950s, and the other was the Open Education Movement(O.E.M) from late 1980s to 1990s. Both of them encompassed a similar ideology of child-centered education. Although they appeared in different era, they had similar characteristics of rise and fall. What were the conditions of these movements? What were the meanings of their ideologies? How had these movements developed in the different eras? In these aspects, how were the two movements different? What made these movements dwindle? The purpose of this study is to answer these questions. The two education movements were supported by the needs of society. Their ideologies came from child-centered education. N.E.M tried to change students' lives in school as well as the method of instruction from a teacher-centered to a child-centered approach. On the other hand, O.E.M focused the goal of their movement on the reformation of the instruction method, which was tailored to the different levels of the students. Both movements tried to reform the curriculum, and make core or united curriculum. These tries succeeded by the endeavor of teachers in schools. Their success spreaded to many schools, and the government made policy to adapt these movements to all schools. Government's hasty policies put a heavy strain on some of the schools that they resulted in unintentional negative effects. The elements of success needed for education movements are leaders, voluntary teachers, and a culture in which they can work freely and cooperatively. Also important is a government policy that is not a “top down” approach, which strains schools heavily, but a “bottom up” approach, in which schools are allowed to reform the education system in its natural envir