Mechanisms involved in adenosine pharmacological preconditioning
Adenosine is a naturally occurring breakdown product of adenosine triphosphate and plays an important role in different physiological and pathological conditions. Adenosine also serves as an important trigger in ischemic and remote preconditioning and its release may impart cardioprotection. Exogenous administration of adenosine in the form of adenosine preconditioning may also protect heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Endogenous release of adenosine during ischemic/remote preconditioning or exogenous adenosine during pharmacological preconditioning activates adenosine receptors to activate plethora of mechanisms, which either independently or in association with one another may confer cardioprotection during ischemia-reperfusion injury. These mechanisms include activation of KATP channels, an increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes, functional interaction with opioid receptors; increase in nitric oxide production; decrease in inflammation; activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels; activation of kinases such as protein kinase B (Akt), protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase, mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases such as ERK 1/2, p38 MAP kinases and MAP kinase kinase (MEK 1) MMP. The present review discusses the role and mechanisms involved in adenosine preconditioning-induced cardioprotection.
RELEASE OF ADENOSINE IN ISCHEMIC AND REMOTE PRECONDITIONING
ADENOSINE (PHARMACOLOGICAL) PRECONDITIONING
MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN ADENOSINE PRECONDITIONING
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST