It has been reported that many of the effects of digitalis glycosides could be mediated partly through the central nervous system. In this study the effects of ouabain given directly into the lateral ventricle of the brain on the renal function of the rabbit were investigated. Intraventricular ouabain elicited antidiuresis in doses ranging from 0.1 to 3μg, exhibiting a rough dose-response relationship, and decreased the renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, concomitant with the decrease of urine flow. These decreases in urine flow, excretory rate of electrolytes significantly correlated with the decrease in renal plasma flow or glomerular filtration rate, suggesting that the antidiuresis might have been induced by the hemodynamic changes. Intravenous ouabain in a dose of 1μg did not affect the renal function. Systemic blood pressure as well as cardiac activity was not affected by the intraventricular ouabain. Effects of the intraventricular ouabain on renal function were abolished by the intravenous phentolamine-pretreatment but not affected by intraventricular phentolamine-pretreatment. Neither vasopressin infusion nor hydration did affect the renal effects of intraventricular ouabain. From these observations, it is suggested that the antidiuresis of intraventricular ouabain is induced by the increased sympathetic influence to the kidney.