Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in the kenaf plant (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)
Chemical compounds from four different tissues of the kenaf plant (Hibiscus cannabinus), a valuable medicinal crop originating from Africa, were examined to determine its potential for use as a new drug material. Leaves, bark, flowers, and seeds were harvested to identify phytochemical compounds and measure antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses identified 22 different phytocompounds in hexane extracts of the different parts of the kenaf plant. The most abundant volatile compounds were E-phytol (32.4%), linolenic acid (47.3%), trisiloxane-1,1,1,5,5,5-hexamethyl- 3,3-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy] (16.4%), and linoleic acid (46.4%) in leaves, bark, flowers, and seeds, respectively. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography identified the major compounds in the different parts of the kenaf plant as kaemperitrin, caffeic acid, myricetin glycoside, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in leaves, bark, flowers, and seeds, respectively. Water extracts of flowers, leaves, and seeds exhibited the greatest DPPH radical scavenging activity and SOD activity. Our analyses suggest that water is the optimal solvent, as it extracted the greatest quantity of functional compounds with the highest levels of antioxidant activity. These results provide valuable information for the development of environmentally friendly natural products for the pharmaceutical industry.
Materials and Methods