Citrus is an economically important fruit tree with the largest amount of fruit production in the world. It provides important nutrition such as vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds including its unique flavonoids for human health. However, it is classified into the most difficult crops to develop new cultivars through conventional breeding approaches due to its long juvenility and some unique reproductive biological features such as gamete sterility, nucellar embryony, and high level of heterozygosity. Due to global warming and changes in consumer trends, establishing a systematic and efficient breeding programs is highly required for sustainable production of high quality fruits and diversification of cultivars. Recently, reference genome sequences of sweet orange and clementine mandarin have been released. Based on the reference whole-genome sequences, comparative genomics, reference-guided resequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing for various citrus cultivars and crosses could be performed for the advance of functional genomics and development of traits-related molecular markers. In addition, a full understanding of gene function and gene co-expression networks can be provided through combined analysis of various transcriptome data. Analytic information on whole-genome and transcriptome will provide massive data on polymorphic molecular markers such as SNP, INDEL, and SSR, suggesting that it is possible to construct integrated maps and high-density genetic maps as well as physical maps. In the near future, integrated maps will be useful for map-based precise cloning of genes that are specific to citrus with major agronomic traits to facilitate rapid and efficient marker-assisted selection.
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