Research on the basic interaction of radiation with biological systems has contributed to human society through various applications in pharmaceutical, medicine, agriculture and other technological developments. In the agricultural sciences and food technology sectors, the last few decades have witnessed a large number of pertinent works regarding the utilization of radiation for evolution of superior varieties of agricultural crops of economic importance. This review presents general information about the effect of radiation on plant specificity, dose response, and benefits. There has been summarized of the effects observed after exposure and influenced by several factors including plant characteristics and radiation features. We also report on the effect of γ-irradiations on plants, focusing on metabolic alterations, modifications of growth and development and changes in biochemical pathways.