The genus Paeonia belongs to the family Paeonia-ceae having significant medicinal and ornamental importance. The present investigation was undertaken with an aim to understand phylogenetic relationships of three Paeonia species (P. lactiflora, P. obovata, and P. suffruticosa) that are widely distributed in China, Korea, and Japan, using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and to compare the phylogeny results with investigations reported earlier using existed sequences of the same species. The size variation obtained among sequenced nrDNA ITS region was narrow and ranged from 722 to 726 bp. The highest interspecific genetic distance (GD) was found between P. lactiflora and P. suffruticosa or P. obovata. The phylogram obtained using our nrDNA ITS sequences showed non-congruence with previous hypothesis of the phylogeny between section Paeonia and section Moutan of genus Paeonia. This result was supported by the phylogenetic relations showed in the phylogram constructed with existed sequences in NCBI. The present study suggested that P. obovata belonging to section Paeonia was phylogenetically closer to P. suffruticosa representing section Moutan of genus Paeonia than P. lactiflora belonging to section Paeonia. The main reason of the paraphyly of section Paeonia is thought to be nucleotide additivity directly caused by origin hybridization. This study provides more sequence sources of genus Paeonia, and will help for further studies in intraspecies population, and their phylogentic analysis and molecular evolution.