화성 당성과 주변 유적의 성격 및 경관 고찰 －신라~남북국시대를 중심으로－
Study of Characters and Landscape of Hwaseong Dang Castle and the Relics Around the Castle - Focusing on the Periods Ranged from the Shilla Kingdom to the North-South States -
화성 당성(唐城)은 삼국시대 당항성(党項城)으로 지목되는 곳이고, 주변지역에서 신라~남북국시대에 해당되는 건물지와 절터, 수혈 등의 유구와 유물이 출토되고 있다. 이 일대는 삼국~남북국시대 중요한 항구도시로서의 역할을 담당했던 대규모 취락이 있었다고 판단된다. 당성에서는 ‘唐’자가 새겨진 명문와를 비롯하여 ‘漢山’·‘官’·‘舘’·‘舍’·‘宅’·‘本彼謀’ 등 다양한 명문와가 출토되어 당성이 치소성(治所城)의 역할을 했다는 점과 이와 관련된 여러 건물지가 확인되었다. 그리고 상안리 유적Ⅰ·Ⅱ에서는 건물지와 주거 및 저장용 수혈, 도로유구, 가마 등이 발굴되었다. 또한 부호가 새겨진 납석제(蠟石製) 인장이 출토되어 교역과 관련된 관리들이 운영하던 유적으로 추정되었다. 당성에서 출토된 중국제 자기는 당과의 교역관계를 보여주는 유물로서 당시의 물류가 유통되던 길을 보여주는 유물로 평가된다. 아울러 염지통(鹽池通)이라는 교통로를 통해 남양만 일대에서 생산되던 소금의 보관과 유통 그리고 이를 관리하던 관리와 창고의 존재가 상정된다. 백곡리 유적과 백곡리 사지에서는 ‘白寺’·‘白寺下家’·‘白下’자가 새겨진 명문와가 출토되었고, 소조불상의 머리부분을 비롯하여 신라 고배, 인화문 토기, 기와 등의 유물이 수습되었다. 두 유적의 유물로 보아 이곳이 ‘白寺’였다는 점과 신라를 대표하는 승려들이 당성을 통해 당(唐)으로 구법활동(求法活動)을 다녀온 일이 있어 백곡리 일원이 서해안의 신라 불교문화 중심지로 번성하였던 것으로 추정된다. 결론적으로 당성 주변의 경관은 당성과 상안리 유적Ⅰ·Ⅱ가 군사 및 정치, 경제적 업무를 관장했던 공간으로 이용되면서 굴고개길을 중심으로 건물과 주거 및 저장용 수혈이 밀집되어 있었다. 상안리와 동북쪽으로 연결된 백곡리 구릉지대에는 백사라는 사찰이 자리했고, 불상이 모셔졌던 법당과 부속건물이 조영되었을 것이다. 시간적으로는 6세기 중반부터 9세기까지 세 시기로 나누어볼 수 있고, 당성과 주변 유적을 통해 경관 변화 양상을 어느 정도 살필 수 있었다.
Hwaseong Dang Castle(唐城) is referred as Danghang Castle around which a lot of remains and relics belonged to the Era from Shilla Kingdom to North-South States Period were found, including sites for buildings and temples, pits, etc. It is assumed that there were massive clustered settlements that took an important role as a port city in the Era of Three Kingdoms to North-South States Period. Various kinds of roof tiles with inscription were excavated in the Dang Castle including the roof tiles on which Dang (‘唐’, meaning Tang Dynasty in Chinese) was inscribed. From the relics, it revealed that Dang Castle served as a governmental organization equipped with the residential facility, and warehouses to store goods. In the Sangan-ri Relic I and II were found building remains, residential sites, storage pits, the road remains, porcelain kilns, etc. There also were found a seal made of lead and stone on which codes were inscribed. From the remains, the Castle was assumed to have been a place where the government officials related to trade managed. Chinese wares excavated in Dang Castle showed the relation of trade with Tang Dynasty in China. It indicated the transport route at that time. Through the traffic route called Yeomjitong (meaning salt and water passage), we could assume the storage and transport of salt produced in the area of Namyang Bay and officials who managed the salt and warehouses for storage. Among the trade goods, there were goods from Southeast Asia and Western regions, indicating the regions worked as a place of international trade. There found roof tiles on which Baeksa (白寺 meaning Baek Temple) was inscribed in baekgok-ri relics and the temple site. Other relics were found as well including the head part of a Buddha statue, Y-shaped bowls of Shilla Kingdom, flower pattern-inscribed ware, roof tiles, etc. Renowned monks in the Shilla Kingdom had been to Tang Dynasty for their academic purpose through Dang Castle. It was assumed that the whole area around Baekgok-ri had been prosperous place as a center of Buddhists’ culture in Shilla Kingdom along the west coast. In conclusion, structures, residences and storage pits were clustered centering around Gulgogaegil in the areas around the Dang Castle, as Dang Castle and Sangan-ri Relic I and II were utilized as spaces where military, political, and economic affairs were supervised. Baek Temple was located on the hill areas in Baekgok-ri connected to Sanga-ri and to the northeast. In the temple, a sanctuary serving Buddha statues and annexes were built. Classifying such events by period, Shilla Kingdom had conquered the area around Danghang Castle beginning from the middle of the 6th century to the mid of the 7th century and built the 1st Dang Castle. In the period, building sites 1 and 2, the octagon structure site, structure site with Ondol (floorheating system) at the lower level of the building site with stone pedestal were built there. It was the time when the transportation routes passing by the Sangan-ri Relics were arranged. In the latter times of the 7th to the 8th century, many building sites including rectangular sites and structure sites with stone pedestals were built in the 1st Dang Castle. It was the time when the Sangan-ri Relics began to form in full scale. Baekgok-ri Fortress was also built at that time. Baek Temple was built as well, which changed the landcape surrounding Dang Castle once again. In the 9th century, the 2nd Dang Castle was built along with many structures around a water collecting facility. It was assumed that, pits, porcelain kiln, and warehouse sites for storing goods were built in the areas ranging from Sanganri to Baekgok-ri. Porcelain kiln and the structure sites had been continuously used until the early Goryo Dynasty and roof t
Ⅱ. 당성과 주변 유적의 현황
Ⅲ. 당성 주변 유적의 성격과 경관