The purpose of this study is to identify the level of communication, interpersonal relationship, and adaptation of college freshmen by residence type, and figure out factors influencing adaptation to college life in accordance with the type of residence. Method: This study was a descriptive survey study. Data were collected by surveys with the samples of 309 college freshmen and analyzed through t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis with SPSS 22.0. Results: The studentsʼ adaptation to college life was found to be better for the subjects who live with the parents than those who live in dormitories and those who live in rented rooms. In the case of the subjects living with the parents, the influencing factors to college life were in the order of interpersonal relationship, friendship, and communication. In the cases of the subjects living in dormitories and rented rooms were communication and interpersonal relationship, respectively. Conclusion: The level of adaptation to college life of the college freshmen was found to be different in accordance with their types of residence, and the influencing factors to college life were also different for each residence type. Therefore, universities need a variety of approaches to help freshmen to adapt to college life.