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학술저널

An analytical study of gōng-an A Dog has no Buddhanature -With special reference to Letter Sermons of Master Dà Huì

구자구자무불성화(拘子無佛性話)의 분석적 연구

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이 논문은 간화선 수행자들에게 가장 잘알려진 공안인 ‘구자무불성화’를 분석적이고 심리적인 관점에서 해석하였다. ‘선’ 이라는 개념은 불교문헌 가운데 아주 포괄적인 개념이지만 한국 불교계에서는 전통적으로 ‘선’을 ‘공안’을 탐구하는 ‘간화선’으로 간주해 왔다. 초조 ‘보리달마’가 중국에 와서 법을 전한 뒤로 그의 가르침을 ‘조사선’의 경지로 여겼고 많은 수행자들이 ‘묵조선’과 ‘간화선’을 통해서 ‘조사선’의 경지를 체득하려는 노력을 해 왔다. 중국 남송 12세기의 ‘대혜종고선사’는 ‘화두’를 의심하는 ‘간화선’만이 깨달음을 성취하는 유일한 길이라고 선언하였고 ‘묵조선’을 철저히 배격하였다. 이 논문은 우선 ‘구자무불성화’에 나타나는 ‘개에게도 불성이 있습니까? 라는 승려의 질문에 대해서 왜 그러한 질문을 하게 되었는지 ‘심리학적인 분석’을 하며 질문의 ‘타당성’에 대해 논구할 것이다. 두 번째로 ‘대혜종고선사’가 수행자들에게 ‘구자무불성화’를 참구할때 반드시 지켜야한다고 권고한 여덟가지의 규칙에 대해서 그 타당한 이유를 밝히 며 마지막으로 조주선사가 답한 ‘무’의 참다운 의미에 대해 네 가지 범주안에서 설명한다.

An attempt has been made to study the most favorite gōng-àn known as ‘A Dog has no Buddhanature’ by monks and devotees of Zen in analytical and psychological way which nobody has so far attempted. ‘Zen’ is a comprehensive term in Buddhist literature but it has been traditionally considered as observing gōng-àn in Korea. Gōng-àn has been considered as the primary path leading to the enlightenment. With the first Patriarch Bodhidharma who taught the supreme truth to his disciples, it has been distinguished as the state of ‘Patriarch-Zen’, followed by monks and devotees of Zen through meditation—illuminating silent Zen or studying gōng-àn Zen (kàn huà chán). The only difference between illuminating silent Zen and kàn huà chán is that kàn huà chán studies in gōng-àn and illuminating silent Zen does not study gōng-àn. Chinese Zen Master Dà Huì of the 12th-century CE proclaimed that observing the phrase (gōng-àn) with great doubt is the only way to enlighten. He categorically denied the fact that meditating without casting doubt on gōng-àn one can become enlightened. He never compromised this right view to please the people. Once he was to note down that he would rather take all retribution on behalf of people than he compromises truth to the people’s emotion. We intend to begin our discussion with an introduction of this gōng-àn in terms of psychological factors of questioner who questioned in this gōng-àn; secondly, eight rules admonished by Master Dà Huì which have to be observed by students on this gōng-àn will be dealt with; finally, the real state of ‘no’ answered by Master Zhào Zhōu is discussed in four categories.

Ⅰ. Introduction

Ⅱ. Classical Chinese Zen source Shū Zhuàng

Ⅲ. Psychological factors of questioner

Ⅳ. Eight rules admonished by Master Da Hui for

holding ‘a dog has no Buddhanature’

Ⅴ. Real state of Master Zhào Zhōu’s ‘no’

1. ‘No’ in ontological perspective

2. ‘No’ in theory of emptiness

3. ‘No’ in theory of impermanence

4. ‘‘No’ in dialectical point of view

Ⅵ. Concluding Remarks

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