In the teaching of Chinese characters, making full use of the phonetic function of phonetic symbols can help learners improve their learning efficiency. The research on the characteristics of phonetic symbols and the rules of their construction is the premise of teaching Chinese characters with phonetic symbols. The phonetic symbols that can accurately prompt the pronunciation of the whole word and the homophone characters that they constitute provide the applicable materials for the teaching of Chinese characters. The split method simply and intuitively reflects the internal relationship among shape, sound and meaning in pictophonetic characters. The analogy method of homophonic character group and the converse method of homophonic character group are the combination of the function of the sound prompt and the characteristics of the analogy and induction of homophonic character, which can not only help students save the time of memorizing the sound, but also effectively increase the amount of literacy. The quantitative analysis of phonetic symbols and homophone symbols is of great significance to the classification of Chinese characters and the improvement of textbook editing.