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KCI우수등재 학술저널

한국 고대 철기 주조유적의 현황과 조업방식 연구 시론

A Study on the Status of Archaeological Sites and the Methods of Casting Ironware in Ancient Korea

  • 700

본 연구에서는 원삼국~통일신라시대 철기 주조관련 유구·유물의 현황을 정리하고 그 성격을 분석하였으며, 이를 바탕으로 한반도 고대 철기의 주조방식에 대해 검토하였다. 유적의 분포는 원삼국시대 영남지역이 압도적이며, 원삼국~삼국시대에는 주조괭이[钁]가, 통일신라시대에는 무쇠솥[鼎·釜]이 주로 생산되었다. 용해로는 (타)원형 혹은 (장)방형 수혈을 조성하고 한쪽 중앙부에 상부가 좁아지는 원통형 노를 설치하였다. 고대의 범요는 아직 조사된 바 없는데, 기존에 용범요로 보고된 조선시대 부산 노포동·울산 둔기리 범요는 범요의 구조가 될 수 없으며, 경주 황성동·장수 대적골 등의 토기요 및 이와 유사한 구조에서 용범을 소성했던 것으로 파악되었다. 송풍관은 노 내부로 관입되는 곡관과 곡관↔풀무[鞴]를 연결하는 직관으로 구분되며, 직관은 소구경도 확인되지만 곡관은 모두 대구경이다. 용범은 陶製를 사용하였으며, 범저에 범심을 끼우고 형지를 댄 후 범개를 포개 끈으로 묶은 다음 쇳물을 주입해 철기를 제작한다. 용도미상 토제품으로 보고된 유물은 용범에 쇳물을 흘려보내는 출탕구의 기능임을 다시 한 번 확인하였다. 경주 황성동·진천 석장리 등의 주조유적에서 출토되는 원판형 토제품은 철기의 주조공정에서 다양한 용도로 쓰인 소도구일 가능성이 높다는 점을 확인하였다. 이러한 유구·유물을 종합해 고대용해로의 구조를 복원해 도면으로 제시하였다. 한편 이러한 고고자료와 조선후기~근·현대 울산 달천광산 주변지역의 무질부리 및 제주 불미기술의무쇠솥 주조과정을 참고로 해 고대 주조철기의 제작공정을 복원하고자 하였다. 고대 주조철기의 제작공정은 7단계로 구분할 수 있으며, 그 공정을 표와 그림으로 제시하였다. 고대 주조철기의 제작은 많은시간과 인원이 소요되는 매우 정밀한 기술을 요하는 작업이며, 한국에서는 원삼국시대 주조괭이 제작에서부터 주조철기의 생산 및 유통 구조가 체계화되어 간 것으로 이해된다.

This study reviewed the status and characteristics of features and artifacts associated with casting ironware from the Proto-Three Kingdoms to Unified Silla, and examined methods of casting ironware on the Korean Peninsula in ancient times based on this evidence. Archaeological sites from the period of the Proto- Three Kingdoms were overwhelmingly centered in the Yeongnam region (the southeastern region of Korea). Cast hoes were produced mainly in the period of the Proto-Three Kingdoms and Three Kingdoms, and cast iron cauldrons in the period of Unified Shilla. A circular or oval melting furnace was installed at the center of one side of a pit created in an oval or square (rectangular) shape. Such furnaces seem to have had a cylindrical shape, with inner diameter and height measuring approximately 30~60cm and 50~100cm, respectively; the cylindrical structure became narrower towards the top. Kilns for baking molds built in ancient times have yet to be investigated, but those that were discovered at Nopodong (Busan) and in Dungi-ri (Ulsan), which were reported as kilns for baking molds of the Joseon Dynasty, did not feature structures that resembled kilns for baking molds as described in a number of historical sources. In addition, molds appear to have been fired in pottery kilns, such as those of Hwangseong-dong (Gyeongju) and Daejeokgol (Jangsu), or in kilns with structures similar to them. The functions and use methods of artifacts unearthed from sites for casting ironware were also examined, including blast pipes, molds, earthenware items of unidentified use, and disc-shaped earthenware products. By comprehensively examining the characteristics of such features and artifacts, the structure of melting furnaces used in ancient times was restored and a plan drawing was suggested in this study. Additionally, the procedure of producing cast ironware in ancient Korea was restored based on the above archeological materials, as well as by referencing the process of casting ironware in areas near Dalcheon Mine, in Ulsan, from the late Joseon Dynasty to modern times, and the production of cast iron cauldrons using the bullmi (“bellow” in the Jeju dialect) craft in Jeju Island. This process was divided into seven stages as follows. In the first stage, raw materials, fuel and furnaces were prepared in advance; in the second and third stages, molds were formed and such molds were produced in kilns, respectively. In the fourth stage, a melting furnace was constructed; in the fifth stage, liquid metal was produced by inserting and melting materials such as pig iron ingots, iron ingots and scrap iron into the melting furnace. In the sixth stage, liquid metal was inserted into the molds; in the last stage, products were separated from the molds and were cut and ground. In this study, this process was suggested using tables and figures; they show that producing cast ironware in ancient times was a time-consuming and labor-intensive process that required very precise techniques, and that the structure of producing and distributing cast ironware began to be undertaken in a systematic manner in Korea from when cast hoes were produced in the period of the Proto-Three Kingdoms.

Ⅰ. 서론

Ⅱ. 한국 고대 철기 주조유적 현황

Ⅲ. 주조관련 유구 및 유물 검토

Ⅳ. 주조철기의 제작공정

Ⅴ. 결론

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